Table 1

Baseline characteristics of a tri-ethnic cohort of patients with an index non-fatal cardiovascular event in London, England

European (n=335)South Asian (n=396)African Caribbean (n=70)
Had MACE during follow-upNoYesNoYesNoYes
128 (38.2)207 (61.8)110 (27.8)286 (72.2)26 (37.1)44 (62.9)
Demographic information
 Median age (years) at index event70 (65–76)69 (63–75)67 (63–71)64 (58–71)73 (65–76)66 (63–74)
 Female, n (%)24 (18.8)37 (17.9)19 (17.3)41 (14.3)13 (50.0)14 (31.8)
 Median years of education10 (10–11)10 (9–11)12 (10–15)12 (10–14)10 (9–11)10 (9–11)
Vascular risk factors
 Known diabetes, n (%)4 (3.1)23 (11.1)24 (21.8)82 (28.7)5 (19.2)14 (31.8)
 Known hypertension, n (%)6 (4.7)24 (11.6)18 (16.4)41 (14.3)8 (30.8)12 (27.3)
 Median fasting blood glucose (mmol/L)5.4 (5.1–5.7)5.5 (5.1–6.0)5.7 (5.1–6.3)5.6 (5.2–6.5)5.9 (5.3–6.4)6.0 (5.3–6.8)
 Median total cholesterol (mmol/L)6.1 (5.4–6.9)6.3 (5.6–7.1)5.9 (5.2–6.4)6.0 (5.4–6.8)5.3 (4.7–6.1)6.0 (5.0–6.9)
 Median HDL (mmol/L)1.3 (1.1–1.6)1.2 (1.0–1.5)1.2 (1.0–1.4)1.1 (1.0–1.3)1.7 (1.4–1.9)1.4 (1.2–1.7)
 Median triglycerides (mmol/L)1.5 (1.1–1.9)1.6 (1.1–2.3)1.7 (1.2–2.2)1.9 (1.3–2.9)1.1 (0.8–1.5)1.2 (1.0–1.8)
 Median systolic BP (mm Hg)122 (114–134)126 (115–127)122 (114–137)126 (114–137)128 (119–135)131 (121–139)
 Median diastolic BP (mm Hg)79 (73–85)79 (72–86)80 (74–86)81 (74–88)80 (75–85)84 (75–89)
 Median BMI (kg/m2)26.4 (23.6–28.7)26.0 (24.0–29.0)25.9 (24.0–29.0)26.1 (24.3–28.3)26.3 (24.4–29.7)28.0 (25.3–29.8)
 Median waist-to-hip ratio0.93 (0.85–0.97)0.94 (0.88–0.99)0.97 (0.92–1.02)0.97 (0.93–1.01)0.88 (0.84–0.97)0.94 (0.89–0.98)
Lifestyle factors
 Physically active, n (%)78 (60.9)115 (55.6)44 (40.0)125 (43.7)13 (50.0)22 (50.0)
 Healthy diet, n (%)50 (39.1)67 (32.4)43 (39.5)99 (35.1)13 (50.0)15 (34.1)
 Ex-smoker, n (%)49 (38.3)72 (34.8)7 (6.4)24 (8.4)2 (7.7)5 (11.4)
 Current smoker, n (%)36 (28.1)67 (32.3)16 (14.7)42 (14.7)6 (23.1)8 (18.2)
 Daily alcohol use, n (%)35 (27.6)53 (25.7)21 (19.3)43 (15.1)4 (18.2)6 (14.0)
 Rare alcohol use, n (%)73 (57.5)98 (47.6)33 (30.3)77 (27.0)7 (31.8)18 (41.9)
Information on index event
 Median duration of hospital stay (in days) at index event3 (1–8)4 (1–10)4 (1–13)5 (1–11)3 (1–9)3 (0–10)
 Coronary event as the index event92 (71.9)184 (88.9)92 (83.6)257 (89.9)17 (65.4)32 (72.7)
 Received coronary intervention at index event (among those with coronary event)20 (21.7)16 (8.7)21 (22.8)53 (20.6)3 (17.6)1 (3.1)
  • Median values presented with first and third quartile; n—represents the number individuals; %—is the proportion of individuals in the column; coronary artery disease is composite of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. Vascular and lifestyle factors measured at the start of the cohort in 1989–1990.

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; MACE, major adverse cardiovascular event.