Table 1

Baseline characteristics of young patients with AMI, stratified by diabetes status

Baseline characteristicsWithout diabetes (n=2008, 57.4%)
(a)
P value*
(b) vs (a)
Newly diagnosed diabetes (n=508,14.5%) (b)P value†
(b) vs (c)
Established diabetes (n=985,28.1%)
(c)
Sociodemographics
 Age in year (SD)46.5 (6.4)0.00247.5 (5.9)0.55547.7 (5.8)
 Female (%)1270 (63.3%)0.954322 (63.4%)0.001757 (76.9%)
 Race0.0010.188
  White1649 (82.1%)381 (75.0%)712 (72.3%)
  Black248 (12.4%)90 (17.7%)212 (21.5%)
  Others111 (5.5%)37 (7.3%)61 (6.2%)
 Education status0.0020.057
  Less than high school131 (6.7%)13 (2.6%)41 (4.2%)
  Some high school784 (39.9%)202 (40.3%)431 (44.4%)
  More than high school1048 (53.4%)286 (57.1%)498 (51.3%)
Cardiometabolic characteristics
 Body mass index >30 kg/m2767 (38.3%)0.001275 (54.2%)0.001667 (67.9%)
 Peak glucose, median (IQR)127.0 (38.0)0.001141.0 (48.0)0.001261.0 (162.0)
 Initial systolic blood pressure (mm Hg), median (IQR)140.0 (37.0)0.034143.0 (38.0)0.241144.0 (42.0)
 Initial diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg), median (IQR)87.0 (24.0)0.12488.0 (27.0)0.02086.0 (26.0)
 LDL (mmol/L), median (IQR)111.0 (51.0)0.729112.0 (56.0)0.008106.0 (54.0)
 TG (mmol/L), median (IQR)121.5 (95.0)0.001137.0 (105.5)0.001164.0 (154.0)
CVD risk factors
 Family history of CVD1395 (69.5%)0.034382 (75.0%)0.884728 (74.1%)
 History of hypertension1096 (54.6%)0.069300 (59.1%)0.001821 (83.4%)
 History of hypercholesterolemia1648 (82.1%)0.114432 (85.0%)0.001922 (93.6%)
 Smoking within last 30 days1241 (61.8%)0.878316 (62.2%)0.002528 (53.7%)
 Sleep apnoea49 (2.5%)0.36616 (3.2%)0.00196 (9.8%)
Other comorbidities
 History of renal dysfunction143 (7.2%)0.00456 (11.1%)0.004163 (16.6%)
 History of heart failure30 (1.5%)0.02715 (2.9%)0.00196 (9.8%)
 Prior MI242 (12.1%)0.24071 (13.9%)0.001230 (23.4%)
AMI treatment
 Coronary revascularisation (PCI/CABG)1595 (79.4%)0.003433 (85.2%)0.412823 (83.6%)
 Diagnostic angiography1900 (94.6%)0.001498 (98.0%)0.001914 (92.8%)
 Discharge medications
  Aspirin at discharge1948 (98.3%)0.459492 (98.8%)0.032934 (96.9%)
  Statin prescribed1827 (93.4%)0.054471 (95.7%)0.397914 (94.7%)
  Beta-blocker prescribed1779 (95.1%)0.042459 (97.3%)0.506905 (36.6%)
  ACE or ARB prescribed1193 (65.8%)0.021329 (71.5%)0.005709 (78.3%)
Non-pharmacological interventions prescribed at discharge
 Diet counselling1850 (92.1%)0.659471 (92.7%)0.524904 (91.8%)
 Activity guidelines1818 (90.5%)0.005480 (94.5%)0.001876 (88.9%)
 Outpatient cardiac rehab prescribed874 (43.5%)0.132240 (47.2%)0.035409 (41.5%)
 Diabetes education166 (8.3%)0.00191 (17.9%)0.001647 (65.7%)
 Weight management counselling753 (37.5%)0.713195 (38.4%)0.065427 (43.4%)
 Smoking cessation counselling1391 (69.3%)0.339363 (71.5%)0.001613 (62.2%)
 Participated in in-patient cardiac rehab519 (25.9%)0.010160 (31.5%)0.162276 (28.0%)
Clinical characteristics of AMI
 Coronary occlusion ≥50% (documented by coronary angiography)0.2330.013
  Yes1637 (81.5%)438 (86.2%)852 (86.5%)
  No244 (12.2%)50 (9.8%)56 (5.7%)
  Unknown127 (6.3%)20 (4.0%)77 (7.8%)
 ST-segment elevation1077 (53.6%)0.188289 (56.9%)0.001445 (45.2%)
 Initial heart rate, median (IQR)78.0 (23.0)0.00381.0 (25.0)0.00188.0 (26.0)
 Peak troponin, median (IQR)8.1 (31.5)0.5498.6 (25.3)0.0014.9 (20.4)
 Ejection fraction <40%189 (9.6%)0.09860 (12.2%)0.818119 (12.6%)
 Time to presentation >6 hours767 (38.3%)0.999193 (38.3%)0.001506 (51.6%)
Other clinical characteristics
 Baseline admission HbA1c (%), median (IQR)5.6 (0.5)0.0016.3 (1.2)0.0018.5 (3.8)
 1 month HbA1c (%), median (IQR)6.0 (0.5)0.0016.8 (0.4)0.0017.6 (2.0)
 Diabetes types
 Type 1NANA104 (10.6%)
 Type 2NANA742 (75.3%)
 UnknownNANA139 (14.1%)
 Peak creatinine, median (IQR)0.90 (0.3)0.0040.90 (0.3)0.9940.90 (0.4)
Psychosocial and behavioural characteristics
 Social support via ESSI26.1 (5.3)0.15125.7 (5.4)0.08225.2 (5.7)
 Stress via PSS25.2 (9.6)0.77325.3 (9.8)0.71127.25 (9.9)
 Depressive symptom via PHQ-96.9 (6.1)0.0077.8 (6.4)0.0019.34 (6.8)
Self-reported socioeconomic status
 Have health insurance1631 (81.2%)0.014388 (76.4%)0.213780 (79.2%)
 How difficult is it for you to get medical care when needed?0.1290.052
  Extremely difficult172 (8.6%)57 (11.2%)109 (11.1%)
  Some difficulty310 (15.5%)69 (13.6%)182 (18.5%)
  Little/no difficulty1525 (75.9%)382 (75.2%)692 (70.4%)
 Have your medical costs been an economic burden to you over the past year?0.0470.001
  Severe burden207 (10.3%)72 (14.2%)187 (19.0%)
  Some burden352 (17.5%)86 (16.9%)241 (24.5%)
  Little/no burden1448 (72.2%)350 (68.9%)555 (56.5%)
 Avoided healthcare services due to cost (Y/N)517 (25.8%)0.001174 (34.3%)0.273365 (37.1%)
 How often have you not taken a medication that your doctor prescribed because of the cost?0.0090.001
  Always67 (3.3%)30 (5.9%)52 (5.3%)
  Sometimes251 (12.5%)74 (14.6%)235 (23.9%)
  Rarely to never1689 (84.2%)404 (79.5%)696 (70.8%)
  • Data are given as mean (SD), median (IQR) or no. (%).

  • P value numbers in bold denote statistical significance at the p<0.05 level.

  • *Unadjusted p values were testing for differences in baseline characteristics between patients with AMI with newly diagnosed diabetes and no diabetes.

  • †Unadjusted p values were testing for differences in baseline characteristics between patients with AMI with newly diagnosed diabetes and established diabetes.

  • AMI, acute myocardial infarction; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; CVD, cardiovascular disease; ESSI, ENRICHD social support instrument; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MI, myocardial infarction; NA, not available; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PSS, Perceived Stress Scale; TG, triglycerides.