Table 2

Recurrence risk of congenital heart disease

Atrial septal defect4.5%–6%
Ventricular septal defect6%–9.5%
Patent ductus arteriosus4%
Atrioventricular septal defect7.5%–15%
Ebstein3.9%–6%
Tetralogy of Fallot2.5%–10%*
Transposition of the great arteries0.5%†
Bicuspid aortic valve4.6%–9.3%
Aortic coarctation4%
Marfan syndrome50%
Pulmonary valve stenosis7%
  • Modified and updated from van Hagen/Roos-Hesselink, SA Heart 2014.

  • *Range varies to 50% if associated with 22q11.2 deletion.

  • †Total recurrence risk, affected mother or father.