Table 3

Characteristics of patients without (group 1) and with (group 2) thrombus and results of univariate and multivariate analyses

Group 1 (n=129) N (%) or mean±SDGroup 2 (n=13) N (%) or mean±SDP value univariateP value multivariateMultivariate OR (95% CI)
Age69.3±11.373.2±12.10.247
Women44 (34.1%)7 (53.8%) 0.159 0.224
D-dimer (ng/mL)736±7602305±1008 0.058 0.001 1.01 (1.00 to 1.03)
DD50064 (49.6%)13 (100%) 0.001 0.001 1.20 (1.09 to 1.33)
DDAge43 (33.3%)13 (100%) 0.001 0.001 1.30 (1.13 to 1.50)
Hypertension80 (62.0%)11 (84.6%) 0.107 0.135
Heart failure23 (17.8%)7 (53.8%) 0.031 0.067
History of stroke and TE15 (11.6%)7 (53.8%) 0.001 0.001 1.39 (1.04 to 1.86)
Anticoagulation78 (60.4%)5 (38.5%) 0.125 0.147
 VKA16 (11.5%)0 (0.0%)0.28
 NOAC62 (48.1%)5 (38.4%)0.51
Paroxysmal71 (55.0%)3 (23.1%) 0.19 0.37
Non-paroxysmal58 (45.0%)10 (76.9%) <0.039 <0.019 1.14 (1.01 to 1.28)
CHA2DS2-VASc2.9±1.64.4±2.3 0.002 0.001 1.85 (0.28 to 12.33)
 CHA2DS2-VASc=06 (4.7%)0 (0%)
 CHA2DS2-VASc=126 (20.1%)1 (7.7%)
 CHA2DS2-VASc≥297 (75.2%)12 (92.3%)
LEVF (%)52.7±14.041.8±15.9 0.012 0.007 1.06 (0.98 to 1.15)
LA volume (mL)66.5±33.276.3±23.10.555
Diastolic dysfunction24 (18.6%)8 (61.5%)0.210
Mild mitral regurgitation8 (6.2%)1 (7.7%)0.834
Mild aortic stenosis4 (3.1%)1 (7.7%)0.241
  • In italic are significant values, p<0.2 for univariate analysis and p<0.05 for multivariate analysis.

  • *Stroke includes cerebrovascular ischaemic accident, transient ischaemic attack, central or peripheral arterial embolism

  • Group 1, patients without a thrombus on TOE; Group 2, patients with a thrombus on TE; LA, left atrium; LVEF, left ventricle ejection fraction; NOAC, novel oral anticoagulant; TE, thromboembolic events (pulmonary embolism and venous thromboembolism); VKA, vitamin K antagonists.