Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the total coarctation cohort, women with pre-existing hypertension and women without pre-existing hypertension

Total cohort (n=303)Pre-existing hypertension (n=81)No pre-existing hypertension (n=222)P value
Demographics
 Age (mean, SD)29.9 (5.3)30.6 (5.4)29.7 (5.3)0.349
 Nulliparity (%)155 (51.2)45 (55.6)109 (50)0.393
 BMI (median, IQR)23.3 (21.4–27.4)24.1 (21.3–27.1)23.0 (21.5–27.4)0.953
 Emerging country (%)63 (20.8)19 (23.5)43 (19.7)0.479
Prepregnancy characteristics
 Current smoker (%)9 (3.6)3 (4.3)6 (3.4)0.735
 Diabetes mellitus (%)6 (2)0 (0)5 (2.3)0.172
 Atrial fibrillation (%)1 (0.3)0 (0)1 (0.5)0.541
 Signs of heart failure (%)8 (2.6)2 (2.5)6 (2.8)0.893
 LVEF <40% (%)7 (2.3)1 (1.2)6 (2.8)0.440
 Cardiac medication use before pregnancy (%)127 (41.9)60 (74.1)66 (30.3) <0.001
  Beta-blocker37 (12.2)22 (27.2)15 (6.9) <0.001
  ACE-inhibitor9 (3.0)7 (8.6)2 (0.9) 0.001
  Calcium channel blocker11 (3.6)10 (12.3)1 (0.5) <0.001
  Diuretics2 (0.7)1 (1.2)1 (0.5)0.464
 NYHA class I (%)266 (87.8)67 (82.5)197 (90.4)0.067
 NYHA class II (%)31 (10.2)13 (16)17 (7.8) 0.035
 NYHA class III (%)3 (1)0 (0)3 (1.4)0.289
 NYHA class IV (%)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)n.a.
 Unrepaired coarctation (%)29 (9.6)19 (12.3)18 (8.3)0.281
 Surgery for recoarctation41 (13.5%)15 (18.5)26 (11.9%)0.141
 Bicuspid aortic valve (%)123 (40.6)30 (37)92 (42.2)0.419
 Ventricular septal defect (%)37 (12.2)5 (6.2)32 (14.7) 0.047
 Persistent arterial duct (%)17 (5.6)3 (3.7)14 (6.4)0.367
 Aortic dilatation >40 mm (%)11 (3.6)3 (3.7)8 (3.7)0.989
 Valve replacement (%)*15 (5)3 (3.7)12 (5.5)0.526
 Aortic stenosis (%)33 (10.9)9 (11.1)24 (11.0)0.980
  Mild20 (6.6)4 (4.9)16 (7.3)
  Moderate13 (4.3)5 (6.2)8 (3.7)
  Severe0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
 Aortic regurgitation (%)62 (17.3)11 (15.6)41 (18.8)0.529
  Mild40 (13.3)8 (9.9)32 (14.7)
  Moderate12 (4)3 (3.7)9 (4.1)
  Severe0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
 Mitral stenosis (%)4 (1.3)0 (0)4 (1.8)0.219
 Mitral regurgitation (%)52 (17.4)15 (18.5)36 (16.7)0.796
  Mild47 (15.7)13 (16)33 (15.3)
  Moderate5 (1.7)2 (2.5)3 (1.4)
  Severe0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
 Echocardiogram data available160 (53)
  • P values were calculated between the groups pre-existing hypertension and no pre-existing hypertension, using χ2 tests and Mann-Whitney U tests where appropriate. Bold values denote statistical significance at the p<0.05 level.

  • *13 aortic, 1 mitral and 1 tricuspid valve replacement.

  • BMI, body mass index (kg/m2); LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; n.a., not available; NYHA, New York Heart Association.