Table 2

Cardiovascular, obstetric and fetal outcome

Overall cohort (n=303)Pre-existing hypertension (n=81)No pre-existing hypertension (n=222)P value
Cardiovascular outcomes
 Maternal mortality (%)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)n.a.
 Hospital admission for cardiac reasons (%)23 (7.6)12 (14.8)11 (5) 0.005
 Heart failure (%)10 (3.3)4 (4.9)6 (2.8)0.350
 Hospital admission for uncontrolled hypertension (%)8 (2.6)5 (6.2)3 (1.4) 0.022
 Atrial fibrillation or flutter (%)3 (1)0 (0)3 (1.4)0.289
 Ventricular tachyarrhythmias (%)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)n.a.
 Endocarditis (%)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)n.a.
 Thromboembolic event (%)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)n.a.
 Aortic dissection (%)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)n.a.
 Acute coronary syndrome during pregnancy (%)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)n.a.
 Overall MACE (%)13 (4.3)4 (4.9)9 (4.1)0.760
Obstetric and fetal outcome
 Hypertensive disorders (%)16 (5.3)6 (7.4)10 (4.6)0.336
  Pregnancy-induced hypertension8 (2.6)0 (0)8 (3.7)0.081
  Pre-eclampsia8 (2.6)6 (7.4)2 (0.9) 0.002
  Eclampsia or HELLP0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)n.a.
 Postpartum haemorrhage (%)5 (1.7)1 (1.2)4 (1.8)0.719
 Caesarean section (%)143 (49.7)46 (58.2)96 (46.6)0.079
  Emergency caesarean section31 (10.2)13 (16)18 (8.3) 0.049
  For cardiac reasons7 (2.3)3 (3.7)4 (1.8)0.342
 Fetal mortality >24 weeks (%)1 (0.3)0 (0)1 (0.3)0.387
 Neonatal mortality (%)4 (1.3)1 (1.2)3 (1.4)0.925
 IUGR (%)12 (4.0)6 (7.4)6 (2.8)0.068
 Preterm delivery (%)25 (9.1)7 (9)18 (9.2)0.947
 Low Apgar score <7 (%)15 (5)12 (5.5)3 (3.7)0.526
 Low birth weight <2.5 kg (%)20 (6.6)7 (8.6)13 (6.0)0.410
 Mean birth weight (SD)3132.8 (566.1)3024.2 (602.9)3168.6 (552.8)0.131
  With beta-blocker (n=56)3018.8 (415.84)3116.9 (374.4)2920.6 (438.2)0.077
  Without beta-blocker (n=133)3180.9 (613.6)2887.6 (828.1)3230.1 (562.6) 0.024
P=0.072*P=0.204* P=0.008*
  • P values were calculated between the groups pre-existing hypertension and no pre-existing hypertension, using χ2 tests and unpaired t-tests where appropriate. Bold values denote statistical significance at the p<0.05 level.

  • *P values were calculated for birth weight between the groups with and without beta-blocker, using unpaired t-tests.

  • HELLP, haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome; ; IUGR, intrauterine growth restriction; MACE, major adverse cardiac event; n.a., not available.