Table 2

Summary of clinical trials of remote monitoring technologies

Type of monitoringStudyDevice/monitoring variablesHospitalisations
MortalityAll-causeHeart failureCardiovascular
Weights/home measurementsChaudhry et al 4
(Tele-HF)
Symptoms and weights.xxx
Koehler et al 5
(TIM-HF)
EKG, BP and weight.x
Ong et al 3
(BEAT-HF)
Symptoms, HR, BP and weight.xx
Thoracic impedanceAbraham et al 12
(SMILE)
Remote dielectric sensing.
Böhm et al 8
(Opti-Link HF)
 ICD-based thoracic impedance monitoring.xxxx
Domenichini et al 9
(LIMIT-CHF)
ICD-based or CRT-based thoracic impedance monitoring.xx
van Veldhuisen et al 11
(DOT-HF)
ICD-based thoracic impedance monitoring.xxx
HaemodynamicsAbraham et al 14
(CHAMPION)
Pulmonary artery pressure monitoring.xx
Abraham et al 13
(LAPTOP-HF)
Left atrial pressure monitoring.
Adamson et al 15 Pulmonary artery pressure monitoring.
Givertz et al 16 Pulmonary artery pressure monitoring + GDMT.
Desai et al 18 Pulmonary artery pressure monitoring.
Shavelle et al 19 Pulmonary artery pressure monitoring.
Lindenfeld et al 20
(GUIDE-HF)
Pulmonary artery pressure monitoring.xxx
Multiple parametersAnand et al 23
(MUSIC)
Non-invasive monitoring of HR, RR, thoracic impedance and activity.x
Boriani et al 22
(MORE-CARE)
CRT-based monitoring of thoracic impedance and atrial tachyarrhythmias.xxxx
Boehmer et al 25
MultiSENSE
CRT-based monitoring of HR, heart sounds, RR, activity and thoracic impedance.
Morgan et al 21
(REM-HF)
CRT-based monitoring of thoracic impedance, arrhythmia, pacing and HR variability monitoring.xx
  • Summary of clinical trials and outcomes of remote monitoring technologies of various categories, including weights and home monitoring, thoracic impedance, haemodynamics and multiple combined parameters.

  • x denotes outcome that was studied with a neutral outcome.

  • ↓ indicates a reduction in the outcome with the intervention versus standard of care, the comparator arm.

  • BP, blood pressure; CRT-D, cardiac resynchronisation therapy; EKG, electrocardiogram; GDMT, guideline-directed medical therapy; HR, heart rate; ICD, internal cardiac defibrillator; RR, respiratory rate.