Table 2

Summary of clinical trials of remote monitoring technologies

Type of monitoringStudyDevice/monitoring variablesHospitalisations
MortalityAll-causeHeart failureCardiovascular
Weights/home measurementsChaudhry et al 4
Symptoms and
Koehler et al 5
EKG, BP and weight.x
Ong et al 3
Symptoms, HR, BP and weight.xx
Thoracic impedanceAbraham et al 12
Remote dielectric sensing.
Böhm et al 8
(Opti-Link HF)
 ICD-based thoracic impedance monitoring.xxxx
Domenichini et al 9
ICD-based or CRT-based thoracic impedance monitoring.xx
van Veldhuisen et al 11
ICD-based thoracic impedance
HaemodynamicsAbraham et al 14
Pulmonary artery pressure monitoring.xx
Abraham et al 13
Left atrial pressure monitoring.
Adamson et al 15 Pulmonary artery pressure monitoring.
Givertz et al 16 Pulmonary artery pressure monitoring + GDMT.
Desai et al 18 Pulmonary artery pressure monitoring.
Shavelle et al 19 Pulmonary artery pressure monitoring.
Lindenfeld et al 20
Pulmonary artery pressure
Multiple parametersAnand et al 23
Non-invasive monitoring of HR, RR, thoracic impedance and activity.x
Boriani et al 22
CRT-based monitoring of thoracic impedance and atrial tachyarrhythmias.xxxx
Boehmer et al 25
CRT-based monitoring of HR, heart sounds, RR, activity and thoracic impedance.
Morgan et al 21
CRT-based monitoring of thoracic impedance, arrhythmia, pacing and HR variability monitoring.xx
  • Summary of clinical trials and outcomes of remote monitoring technologies of various categories, including weights and home monitoring, thoracic impedance, haemodynamics and multiple combined parameters.

  • x denotes outcome that was studied with a neutral outcome.

  • ↓ indicates a reduction in the outcome with the intervention versus standard of care, the comparator arm.

  • BP, blood pressure; CRT-D, cardiac resynchronisation therapy; EKG, electrocardiogram; GDMT, guideline-directed medical therapy; HR, heart rate; ICD, internal cardiac defibrillator; RR, respiratory rate.