Table 3

A summary of interventions

Targeting jobs and socioeconomic status
  1. Pay the living wage.

  2. Provide financial support to businesses to ensure good working conditions.

  3. Enforce thorough risk assessment on return to work.

  4. Tax and benefit reforms to favour low socioeconomic status communities.

Risk factor intervention at a population level
Policies to protectPolicies to empower
1. Tobacco usage
  • Increases in taxation.

  • Implementing annual increases in price.

  • Raise legal buying age from 18 to 21.

  • Public engagement campaigns focusing on the benefits of quitting.

  • Signposting to smoking cessation services.

2. Poor diet
  • Widen the taxation on sugary food and drink.

  • Restrict price promotions on unhealthy food.

  • Increase low-salt content food availability, restricting that of high-salt content.

  • Implementing warning messages on foods that are high in salt.

  • Restricting advertisement of unhealthy food.

  • Improve availability of healthy food to less affluent families.

  • Public engagement campaigns to raise awareness of obesity and methods to combat it.

3. Physical inactivity
  • Shift taxation on the use of private road vehicles to favour safe public transport.

  • Investment in attractive and safe infrastructure to encourage active commuting and outdoor activity.

  • Safe public events and public engagement campaigns to encourage activity.

4. Alcohol usage
  • Legislate a minimum unit price, implementing annual increases in price.

  • Restrict maximum units per transaction.

  • Restrict advertisement from public places and to postwatershed times.

  • Public engagement campaigns to encourage periods of reduced alcohol consumption.

5. Air pollutants
  • Increase zones of congestion charge.

  • Increase carbon emission taxation.

  • Increase availability of cleaner, more efficient fuel.