Table 3

Prevalence of CVD risk factors in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases

SpondyloarthritisInflammatory bowel disease
Rheumatoid arthritisAnkylosing spondylitisPsoriatic arthritisUCCD
SmokingIncreasedConflicting dataConflicting dataIncreased
UC:CD 1:2
Increased
UC:CD 1:2
HypertensionConflicting data, probably under-recognised and undertreatedConflicting dataIncreasedDecreasedDecreased
Dyslipidaemia*IncreasedIncreasedIncreasedIncreasedIncreased
ObesityIncreasedDecreasedIncreasedDecreasedDecreased
Physical inactivityIncreasedIncreasedIncreasedIncreasedIncreased
Diabetes/insulin resistanceIncreasedDecreasedIncreasedIncreasedIncreased
  • *'Lipid paradox’ with lower lipids during active disease while cardiovascular disease risk is increased.

  • CD, Crohn’s disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; UC, ulcerative colitis.