Table 2


Immune-mediated inflammatory diseasesA group of diseases characterised by dysregulation of the immune system leading to chronic inflammation in certain tissues.
Rheumatoid arthritisChronic systemic inflammatory disease typically affecting the peripheral joints, but involvement of other organs and tissues is also seen. Positive rheumatoid factor and anticitrullinated peptide antibodies in 75%–80%.
SpondylarthropathiesA group of diseases, including ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis and spondylitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease, characterised by inflammation of the axial and/or peripheral joints, dactylitis and enthesitis.
Ankylosing spondylitisInflammation of the spine (sacroiliitis) with insidious chronic back pain usually presenting before the age of 45, with or without arthritis of the peripheral joints, enthesitis, dactylitis, uveitis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. Human leucocyte antigen B27 present in 80%–95%.
Psoriatic arthritisInflammation of joints associated with psoriasis, with or without axial disease, enthesitis, tenosynovitis, dactylitis and nail lesions.
Inflammatory bowel diseaseA group of diseases comprising Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Crohn’s disease can involve the whole gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the perianal area. Ulcerative colitis affects the colon.
Interleukin 6Cytokine involved in inflammation.
Tumour necrosis factor alphaCytokine involved in inflammation.
Conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugsImmunoregulatory or immunosuppressive agents including methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, leflunomide and azathioprine.
Biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugsImmunoregulatory or immunosuppressive agents including etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, rituximab, tocilizumab, abatacept and tofacitinib.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugsInhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase with anti-inflammatory effects.