Table 2

Adjusted mortality and resource use for advanced heart failure care among patients with ACHD and patients who were HF-non-ACHD

HF-non-ACHD, N=31 137 414SV-ACHD-HF, N=27752V-ACHD-HF, N=73 782
n (%) or median (IQR)n (%) or median (IQR)OR (95% CI) or ratio (95% CI)P value (vs HF-non-ACHD)n (%) or median (IQR)OR (95% CI) or ratio (95% CI)P value (vs HF-non-ACHD)
Mortality1 708 855 (5.5)183 (6.6)1.60 (1.16 to 2.26)<0.0014619 (6.3)1.15 (1.08 to 1.24)<0.001
Length of stay4 (2–7)5 (2–9)1.10 (1.04 to 1.17)0.00185 (2–8)1.08 (1.07 to 1.10)<0.001
Transplant13 535 (0.04)49 (1.8)322 (0.4)1.66 (1.25 to 2.20)<0.001
VAD23 294 (0.07%)19 (0.7)209 (0.3)0.66 (0.48 to 0.92)0.0015
ECMO16 224 (0.05)(0.4)*396 (0.5)1.84 (1.44 to 2.36)<0.001
Intra-aortic balloon pump244 956 (0.8)(0.4)*2135 (2.9)2.33 (2.10 to 2.59)<0.001
Internal cardiac defibrillator236 580 (0.8)15 (0.5)1342 (1.8)1.38 (1.21 to 1.57)<0.001
Cardiac catheterisation or Swann central catheter placement4 268 637 (14)514 (19)20 166 (27)1.82 (1.72 to 1.92)<0.001
Inpatient costs†$32.3K ($17.1K–$65.7K)$47.4K ($20.9K–$124.6)1.14 (1.03 to 1.27)0.016$49.3K ($22.0K–$121.3K)1.33 (1.30 to 1.35)<0.0001
  • NIS database. Adjusting for age, gender, insurance type, hospital affiliation, year and comorbidities. Regression analysis not performed for some SV-ACHD-HF data due to limited patient numbers.

  • *Cell counts which is less than or equal to 10 are not allowed to be reported according to the data usage agreement.

  • †Inpatient costs inflated and adjusted to 2016 costs.

  • ACHD-HF, adults with congenital heart disease and heart failure; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; NIS, Nationwide Inpatient Sample; SV, single-ventricle; 2V, two-ventricle; VAD, ventricular assist device.