Table 3

Cardiovascular screening programmes evaluated by the US Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) and/or the UK National Screening Committee (UK NSC)

TopicUSPSTF recommendationUK NSC recommendation
Abdominal aortic aneurysm For screening one-time of men aged 65 to 75 years who have ever smoked Selective regarding non-smokers
Against screening of women
For screening one-time of men aged 65 years
Anyone else who think they are at higher risk can talk to their GP about of having a scan
Type 2 diabetes For screening of asymptomatic adults aged 40 to 70 years with sustained blood pressure greater than 135/80 mm HgInsufficient evidence
Atrial fibrillation by ECGInsufficient evidenceInsufficient evidence
Hypertension in children and adolescentsInsufficient evidenceInsufficient evidence
CVD risk: screening by echocardiography Against screening with resting or exercise ECG in low-risk asymptomatic adults, when at intermediate or high risk of CVD events, the current evidence is insufficientNo considerations
CVD: risk assessment with non-traditional risk factors Insufficient evidence regarding: ankle–brachial index, hsCRP level, or coronary artery calcium score compared with traditional CVD risk assessment in asymptomatic adultsNo considerations
Solitary screening of coronary artery calcium score in moderate- to high-risk populationsInsufficient evidenceNo considerations
Carotid artery stenosis: screening Against screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in the general adult populationNo considerations
High blood pressure in adults: screening
  • Adults aged ≥40 years and persons at increased risk for high blood pressure should be screened annually

  • Adults aged 18 to 39 years with normal blood pressure (<130/85 mm Hg) and no other risk factors should be rescreened every 3–5 years

Insufficient evidence
Lipid disorders in children and adolescents including FHInsufficient evidence of benefit or long-term harms of screening for lipid disorders in young adults not at increased risk for CVDInsufficient evidence—and modelling suggests that universal screening for FH is not cost-effective
HypercholesterolaemiaRecommended to:
  • Men aged 35 years and older

  • Women aged 45 years and older with increased risk for CAD

  • Men aged 20 to 35 years with increased risk for CAD

  • Women aged 20 to 45 years with increased risk for CAD

No consideration
PAD: screening Against routine population screening for PAD: they recognise it can be detected, but there is no evidence that treatment of asymptomatic cases improve health outcomes but fair evidence that false positives could lead to some small degree of harmNo consideration
Triple vascular screeningNo considerationNo consideration
Multiple CVD screening as DANCAVASNo considerationNo consideration
  • CVD, cardiovascular disease; DANCAVAS, Danish Cardiovascular; FH, familiar hypercholesterolaemia; GP, general practitioner; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C reactive protein; PAD, peripheral arterial disease.