Table 2

Univariate analysis for major adverse events in patients with stage C or D heart failure with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy during a 5-year follow-up

HR95% CIP value
Age (years)1.031.00 to 1.070.0787
Male2.770.64 to 12.040.175
BMI (kg/m2)0.960.94 to 1.030.160
Hypertension (%)0.810.31 to 2.100.666
Diabetes mellitus (%)1.090.31 to 3.760.896
QRS duration (ms)1.010.99 to 1.020.475
LBBB on EKG (%)1.200.39 to 3.650.752
RBBB on EKG (%)0.960.13 to 7.260.971
Intraventricular block (%)_*_*_*
ALT (U/L)0.980.96 to 1.010.257
AST (U/L)0.980.94 to 1.020.344
Creatinine (μmol/L)1.011.00 to 1.020.019
Na+ (SD) (mmol/L)0.860.75 to 0.980.0245
Cl (SD) (mmol/L)0.850.76 to 0.950.005
hs-CRP (mmol/L)1.050.98 to 1.110.150
Hcy (μmol/L)1.000.98 to 1.010.764
WBC (G/L)0.850.63 to 1.140.279
Hb (G/L)1.000.98 to 1.020.724
PLT (G/L)1.000.99 to 1.010.951
BNP (Box-Cox transform) (pg/mL)1.571.20 to 2.040.001
CMR-LVEDV (mL)1.001.00 to 1.010.002
CMR-LVESV (mL)1.011.00 to 1.010.001
CMR-LVEF %0.960.91 to 1.020.169
CMR-LVMASS (g)1.011.00 to 1.010.161
CMR-RVEDV (mL)1.011.00 to 1.020.045
CMR-RVESV (mL)1.011.00 to 1.020.149
CMR-RVEF %0.990.96 to 1.020.686
CMR-LVpGLS (%)1.100.91 to 1.320.335
CMR-LVpGCS (%)1.090.91 to 1.300.339
CMR-RVpGCS (%)1.050.93 to 1.190.456
CMR-RVpGLS (%)1.141.01 to 1.280.035
CMR-LVLGE (%)2.570.99 to 6.680.052
 ACEI/ARB/ARNI (%)0.360.10 to 1.240.1047
 Beta-blocker (%)3.330.76 to 14.530.1092
 Spironolactone (%)0.520.07 to 3.920.5258
  • BNP has done the Box-Cox transformation whose formula is (BNPˆ0.1418–1)/0.1418.

  • *The model failed because of the small sample size.

  • ACEI, ACE inhibitor; ALT, alanine transaminase ; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; ARNI, angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor; AST, aspartate transaminase; BMI, body mass index; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; CMR, cardiac magnetic resonance; Hb, haemoglobin; Hcy, homocysteine; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C reactive protein; LBBB, left bundle branch block; LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume; LVLGE, left ventricular late gadolinium enhancement; LVMASS, left ventricular mass; LVpGCS, left ventricular peak global circumferential strain; LVpGLS, left ventricular peak global longitudinal strain; PLT, platelets; RBBB, right bundle branch block; RVEDV, right ventricular end-diastolic volume; RVESV, right ventricular end-systolic volume; RVpGCS, right ventricular peak global circumferential strain; RVpGLS, right ventricular peak global longitudinal strain; WBC, white blood cell.