Table 2

Association of VHD stratified according to severity with all-cause and cause-specific mortality

VHD severity
NnPYsMRCrude modelP valueMultivariable model*P value
All-cause mortality
 No175115211 50813.21.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Mild1578185968519.11.51 (1.22–1.87)<0.0011.20 (0.96–1.51)0.10
 Significant1822487827.32.43 (1.58–3.75)<0.0011.47 (0.94–2.31)0.09
 No17513411 5083.01.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Mild15784496854.51.59 (1.02–2.49)0.041.15 (0.72–1.83)0.57
 Significant18288789.13.34 (1.54–7.26)0.0021.52 (0.63–3.68)0.35
 No17517911 5086.91.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Mild15787696857.81.14 (0.83–1.57)0.401.05 (0.76–1.45)0.77
 Significant18238783.40.50 (0.16–1.60)0.240.37 (0.11–1.24)0.11
Respiratory disease
 No17511411 5081.21.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Mild15781996852.01.60 (0.80–3.17)0.181.12 (0.54–2.32)0.76
 Significant18258785.74.97 (1.80–13.7)0.0022.49 (0.91–6.77)0.07
  • *Multivariable model was adjusted for sex, age, smoking status, index of multiple deprivation, rheumatic fever and atrial fibrillation.

  • †The Fine-Gray competing risks model was used to evaluate cause-specific mortality, with other causes of death modelled as a single competing outcome.

  • CVD, cardiovascular disease; MR, mortality rate per 1000 person-years; N, number at risk of death within category; n, number of deaths within category; PYs, person-years; VHD, valvular heart disease.