Table 1

Definitions of alcohol consumption and moderate alcohol excess in the UK, Europe and North America

DiagnosisAlcohol consumptionUsed in this studyNotes
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy80 g/day for at least 5 years.No patients with alcoholic cardiomyopathy were recruited to this study.
Moderate alcohol excess according to UK government guidelines 1987–2016Men: >21 units of alcohol/week. Women: >14 units of alcohol/week.Yes – the basis of the primary analysis.UK 1 unit of alcohol=10 mL or 8 g of pure alcohol, an amount the average adult metabolises in 1 hour.
Moderate alcohol excess according to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2016Men: up to 20 g/day (2 units). Women: up to 10 g/day (1 unit).Considered in secondary sensitivity analysis; not the basis of the primary analysis.ESC 1 unit of alcohol=10 g alcohol.
Moderate alcohol excess according to the US Centre for Disease Control/US Dietary GuidelinesMen: >2 standard drinks/day. Women: >1 standard drink/day.NoUS ‘standard drink’=∼12 g alcohol.
Moderate alcohol excess according to the WHO>2 standard drinks/day.NoWHO ‘standard drink’=10 g alcohol.