Table 1

Baseline characteristics

High Lp(a) (n=26)Low Lp(a) (n=26)P value
Clinical characteristics
 Age, years66.3±5.666.5±5.60.934*
 Male gender22 (84.6)22 (84.6)>0.999†
 Body mass index, kg/m226.9±4.528.5±4.20.316*
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg128±12141±12<0.001*
 Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg79±1285±110.057*
 Ischaemic heart disease6 (23.1)2 (7.7)0.248‡
 Hypertension20 (76.9)20 (76.9)>0.999†
 Diabetes mellitus3 (11.5)7 (26.9)0.291‡
 Smoking
 Never8 (30.8)9 (34.6)0.872‡
 Former12 (46.2)13 (50)
 Active6 (23.1)4 (15.4)
 Use of lipid-lowering therapy19 (73.1)16 (61.5)0.554†
 Use of antihypertensive(s)18 (69.2)19 (73.1)>0.999†
Laboratory values
 C reactive protein, mg/dL1.1 (0.5–4.8)1.3 (0.9–2.3)0.521*
 Creatinine, mmol/L87±2087±180.903*
 Urea, mmol/L6.8±2.37.0±2.10.775*
 Calcium, mmol/L2.41±0.092.42±0.080.713*
 Phosphate, mmol/L0.94±0.200.94±0.160.933*
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L4.43±0.944.85±1.130.151*
 HDL-cholesterol, mmol/L1.54±0.341.62±0.720.606*
 LDL-cholesterol, mmol/L2.3±0.82.6±1.10.361*
 Corrected LDL-cholesterol, mmol/L1.9±0.82.5±1.30.035*
 Triglycerides, mmol/L1.09 (0.70–1.55)1.29 (1.05–2.11)0.090§
 Lp(a), mg/dL79 (64–112)5 (3–10)<0.001§
Echocardiographic parameters
 Bicuspid aortic valve5 (19.2)5 (19.2)>0.999†
 Peak aortic jet velocity, m/s2.77±0.552.83±0.420.689*
 Peak aortic valve gradient, mm Hg31±13.5530.85±10.680.964*
 Mean aortic valve gradient, mm Hg17.88±8.3117.88±6.960.998*
 Aortic valve area, cm21.77±0.641.62±0.420.345*
  • Data are presented as mean±SD, median (IQR) or number (percentage).

  • *Hypothesis tested by t-test.

  • †Hypothesis tested by χ2.

  • ‡Hypothesis tested by Fisher’s exact test.

  • §Hypothesis tested by Mann-Whitney U test.

  • HDL, high-density-lipoprotein; LDL, low-density-lipoprotein; Lp(a), lipoprotein(a).