Table 1

Baseline characteristics by physical activity categories

CharacteristicOverallInactiveModerately activeHEPAP for trend
n25 48511 92096833882
Age, years42.0 (6.1)41.7 (5.7)41.7 (6.1)43.2 (7.0)<0.001
Men, %89.287.991.787.40.008
Current smoker, %35.136.435.330.5<0.001
High alcohol intake, %30.329.829.832.80.002
Higher education, %79.980.281.774.1<0.001
BMI, kg/m224.7 (3.1)24.7 (3.2)24.7 (3.0)24.8 (3.0)0.10
SBP, mmHg114.3 (12.4)113.8 (12.3)114.5 (12.4)115.2 (12.7)<0.001
DBP, mmHg74.9 (10.0)74.8 (10.0)75.0 (10.0)74.7 (10.0)0.96
Fasting glucose, mg/dL99.5 (17.4)99.5 (17.9)99.4 (16.9)99.7 (16.8)0.60
Total cholesterol, mg/dL204.6 (35.8)205.8 (36.4)204.4 (35.4)201.6 (34.8)<0.001
LDL-C, mg/dL131.9 (32.5)132.9 (32.9)131.9 (32.4)129.0 (31.9)<0.001
HDL-C, mg/dL52.6 (13.2)51.9 (13.1)52.5 (13.0)55.0 (13.8)<0.001
Triglycerides, mg/dL123 (87–177)129 (90–185)122 (87–177)109 (77–156)<0.001
Hypertension, %19.218.519.221.4<0.001
Diabetes, %7.06.96.97.80.10
Family history of CVD, %15.014.615.415.40.17
Lipid-lowering therapy, %4.64.54.64.80.73
CAC score14.7 (75.7)11.8 (60.8)14.3 (71.0)24.3 (116.9)<0.001
 CAC >0, %21.219.621.725.4<0.001
 CAC 1–99, %17.716.618.120.2
 CAC ≥100, %3.42.83.55.0
  • Values are means (SD), medians (IQR) or percentages. High alcohol intake is defined as >30 g/day for men and >20 g/day for women. Higher education is defined as college graduate or higher.

  • BMI, body mass index; CAC, coronary artery calcium; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HEPA, health-enhancing physically active; IQR, interquartile range; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SD, standard deviation.