Table 4

Five-year progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) by physical activity categories among participants with no CAC (CAC=0) at baseline

ParameterInactiveModerately activeHEPA
n960575872904
Mean CAC score at 5 years (95% CI)1.32
(1.09, 1.55)
1.49
(1.23, 1.75)
1.64
(1.21, 2.06)
Difference in mean CAC scores at 5 years (95% CI)0
(Reference)
0.17
(−0.18, 0.52)
0.32
(−0.16, 0.81)
  • Values were estimated from a random intercept and random slope mixed model for CAC score adjusted for baseline age, sex, centre, smoking, alcohol intake, education, family history of cardiovascular disease, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, hypertension, diabetes and lipid-lowering therapy. P value for trend across International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) categories for difference in differences 0.16.

  • CAC, coronary artery calcium; CI, confidence interval; HEPA, health-enhancing physically active.