Table 3

Five-year progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) by physical activity categories among participants with prevalent CAC (CAC >0) at baseline

ParameterInactiveModerately activeHEPA
n23152096978
Mean CAC score (95% CI)
 Baseline74.25
(69.11, 79.39)
76.13
(70.69, 81.58)
79.63
(72.11, 87.15)
 Year 5150.12
(140.93, 159.31)
159.70
(150.15, 169.25)
170.52
(156.67, 184.38)
 Five-year difference
 (Year 5–baseline)
75.87
(67.92, 83.82)
83.57
(75.37, 91.77)
90.89
(78.80, 102.99)
Difference in mean CAC scores (95% CI)
 Baseline0
(Reference)
1.88
(−5.80, 9.38)
5.38
(−3.80, 14.56)
 Year 50
(Reference)
9.58
(−3.68, 22.83)
20.40
(3.74, 37.07)
 Difference in differences
 (Year 5–baseline)
0
(Reference)
7.70
(−3.72, 19.11)
15.02
(0.56, 29.49)
  • Values were estimated from a random intercept and random slope mixed model for CAC score adjusted for baseline age, sex, centre, smoking, alcohol intake, education, family history of cardiovascular disease, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, hypertension, diabetes and lipid-lowering therapy. P value for trend across International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) categories for difference in differences was 0.03.

  • CAC, coronary artery calcium; CI, confidence interval; HEPA, health-enhancing physically active.