Table 2

Comparing the mean Dutch dietary consumption (2012–2016) to the recommended intake by the Dutch dietary guidelines and the ‘healthy reference diet’ proposed by Willett et al4 35 36

Food group
Healthy reference diet4Dutch healthy diet guidelines*35Dutch National Food Consumption Survey36
Whole grain foods232≥9093
Potatoes50 (0–100)72
Vegetables300 (200–600)≥200143
Fruit200 (100–300)≥200113
Dairy250 (0–500)300–450*333
Meat≤43† (0–86)<45 (red meat)*
0 (processed meat)
Eggs13 (0–25)13
Fish28 (0–100)1516
Legumes75 (0–100)105
Nuts50 (0–75)≥159
  • *When the Dutch dietary guidelines do not quantify a recommendation, the cut-off values were based on those defined for the Dutch Healthy Diet index 2015 (DHD15 index), which is based on the Dutch dietary guidelines and the Wheel of Five.

  • †Mainly chicken/poultry and very little red meat.