Table 1

Summary of associations of nutrients, foods and dietary patterns with cardiovascular disease risk

Nutrients
Fatty acids6
Replacing five en% SFA with PUFA
Replacing five en% SFA with MUFA
Replacing five en% SFA with complex carbohydrates
Replacing SFA with refined carbohydrates
Replacing SFA with TFA


CHD
CHD
CHD
CHD
CHD


25% lower
15% lower
9% lower
None
5% higher
Minerals11 12
Sodium: 1 g/day reduction
Potassium: high versus low intake (<120 mmol/L)


CVD
Stroke


20% lower
24% lower
Fibre17
7 g/day higher intake
10 g/day higher intake
10 g/day higher intake


CHD
Stroke
Type 2 diabetes


9% lower
16% lower
6% lower
Food (group)s
Fruits and vegetables13
200 g/day higher intake
200 g/day higher intake
200 g/day higher intake


CVD
CHD
Stroke


8% lower
8% lower
16% lower
Pulses14
Per 4 weekly servings of 100 g


CHD


14% lower
Nuts15
Per 28 g/day
Per 28 g/day
Per 28 g/day


CVD
CHD
Stroke


21% lower
29% lower
7% lower
Whole grain foods16
90 g/day versus no intake


CHD


25% lower
Red meat18
Unprocessed: 2 versus 0 servings/week
Processed: 2 versus 0 servings/week


CVD
CVD


3% higher
7% higher
Fish19
Per 20 g/day
Per 20 g/day


CHD incidence
CHD mortality


4%
4%
Sugar-sweetened beverages23
Two servings/day versus one serving/month


CVD mortality
31% higher
Alcoholic beverages25
Per 12.5 units/week
Per 12.5 units/week


Myocardial infarction
Stroke


6% lower
14% higher
Dietary patterns
Mediterranean diet29 30
High versus low adherence
Diet versus control (RCT) in high-risk individuals


CVD
CVD


10% lower
31% lower
DASH diet22
High versus low adherence
High versus low adherence
High versus low adherence


CVD
CHD
Stroke


20% lower
20% lower
20% lower
  • CHD, coronary heart disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DASH, dietary approaches to stop hypertension; En%, percentage of total energy intake; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid; RCT, randomised controlled trial; SFA, saturated fatty acid; TFA, trans fatty acid.