Table 1

Characteristics of the cohort at baseline based on cardiovascular disease (CVD) status at the end of follow-up

CVDNo CVD
Male (n=423)Female (n=614)Male (n=500)Female (n=784)
Follow-up, years, mean (SD) 8.1 (5.6)9.5 (6.2)10.5 (7.3)14.1 (7.2)
Sociodemographic factors
Age, mean (SD)75.6 (7.2)75.2 (6.6)p=0.1575.2 (7.3)74.6 (7.0)p=0.34
Education level (%)*
 Low or none118 (27.9)354 (57.7)154 (30.8)410 (52.3)
 Middle school277 (65.5)235 (38.3)298 (59.6)332 (42.3)
 High school or above28 (6.6)25 (4.1)p<0.000148 (9.6)42 (5.4)p<0.0001
No of household members
034 (8.0)150 (24.4)46 (9.2)187 (23.9)
 ≥1389 (92.0)464 (75.6)p<0.0001454 (90.8)597 (76.1)p<0.0001
Health behaviours
Physical activity †
Inactive89 (21.0)250 (40.7)114 (22.8)334 (42.6)
 Active334 (79.0)364 (59.3)p<0.0001386 (77.2)450 (57.4)p<0.0001
Physical activity trajectories ‡
Stable-low22 (6.8)97 (20.3)14 (4.7)104 (18.5)
 High-decreasing44 (13.6)87 (18.2)34 (11.4)69 (12.3)
 Low-increasing36 (11.1)76 (15.9)34 (11.4)84 (15.0)
 Stable-high221 (68.4)218 (45.6)p<0.0001216 (72.5)304 (54.2)p<0.0001
Alcohol (units/week) §
Teetotalers186 (44.0)514 (83.7)234 (46.8)635 (81.0)
 Moderate drinkers104 (24.6)89 (14.5)118 (23.6)131 (16.7)
 Heavy drinkers133 (31.4)11 (1.8)p<0.0001148 (29.6)18 (2.3)p<0.0001
Smoking status (%)
Never105 (24.8)533 (86.8)104 (20.8)675 (86.1)
 Former262 (61.9)51 (8.3)288 (57.6)73 (9.3)
 Current56 (13.2)30 (4.9)p<0.0001108 (21.6)36 (4.6)p<0.0001
Clinical risk factors
BMI, mean (SD)26.0 (3.6)25.8 (4.2)p=0.2725.4 (3.5)25.4 (4.3)p=0.12
Multimorbidity
026 (6.2)25 (4.1)41 (8.2)31 (4.0)
 186 (20.3)63 (10.3)104 (20.8)83 (10.6)
 287 (20.6)104 (16.9)125 (25.0)141 (18.0)
 3102 (24.1)131 (21.3)94 (18.8)172 (21.9)
 ≥4122 (28.8)291 (47.4)p<0.0001136 (27.2)357 (45.5)p<0.0001
Prevalent cardiovascular comorbidity ¶
061 (14.4)92 (15.0)86 (17.2)137 (17.5)
1362 (85.6)522 (85.0)p=0.80414 (82.8)647 (82.5)p=0.90
  • Numbers in the table refer to participants included in the analyses on incident CVD (n=2321).

  • *Low or none (none, third grade or fifth grade), middle school (junior high, professional classes), high school or above (high school, pre-college or university degree).

  • †Active defined as >20 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day and inactive as ≤20 min.

  • ‡Numbers were defined regardless of prevalent CVD cases at the second available visit that defined the trajectory (only referred to participants with at least 2 visits).

  • §Teetotalers: none or occasional alcohol consumption; moderate drinkers: <7 units of alcohol/week for women and <14 units/week for men; heavy drinkers: ≥7 units/week for women and ≥14 units/week for men.

  • ¶Angina, transient ischaemic attack, peripheral artery disease, atrial fibrillation or hypertension.