Table 4

HRs of heart failure in sarcoidosis associated with covariates evaluated at start of follow-up (second visit for sarcoidosis in the National Patient Register)

Heart failureHR* (95% CI)
Yes
(n=204)
No
(n=8370)
UnivariableMultivariable model 1Multivariable model 2
Age at sarcoidosis diagnosis†, years67 (59, 76)48 (37, 60)2.4 (2.2 to 2.7)1.9 (1.7 to 2.2)
Male114 (56)4636 (55)1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)1.5 (1.1 to 2.0)
Education‡, years
 ≤998 (48)1781 (21)4.1 (2.8 to 6.1)1.9 (1.3 to 2.9)
 10–1273 (36)4129 (49)1.3 (0.9 to 2.0)1.3 (0.9 to 2.0)
 ≥1333 (16)2460 (29)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
Hypertension107 (52)1789 (21)5.7 (4.3 to 7.5)2.2 (1.6 to 2.9)1.2 (0.9 to 1.7)
Diabetes mellitus58 (28)609 (7)6.2 (4.5 to 8.4)3.2 (2.3 to 4.4)2.5 (1.8 to 3.6)
Chronic kidney disease20 (10)173 (2)6.2 (3.9 to 9.9)1.9 (1.2 to 3.1)1.4 (0.8 to 2.2)
Alcohol-related disease10 (5)186 (2)2.9 (1.5 to 5.5)2.4 (1.3 to 4.5)2.0 (1.0 to 3.9)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease11 (5)225 (3)2.4 (1.3 to 4.4)1.1 (0.6 to 2.1)1.1 (0.6 to 2.1)
Heart valve disease16 (8)73 (1)11.1 (6.6 to 18.5)3.8 (2.2 to 6.4)1.8 (1.0 to 3.1)
Ischaemic heart disease or acute myocardial infarction47 (23)343 (4)7.7 (5.6 to 10.7)2.4 (1.7 to 3.4)1.4 (1.0 to 2.1)
Atrial fibrillation49 (24)214 (3)13.6 (9.9 to 18.8)4.6 (3.2 to 6.5)2.6 (1.8 to 3.9)
Other arrhythmia or heart block39 (19)277 (3)8.1 (5.7 to 11.5)4.2 (2.9 to 6.0)2.5 (1.6 to 3.7)
Pulmonary hypertension≤5 (2)7 (<1)Not estimableNot estimableNot estimable
Autoimmune disease27 (13)674 (8)2.0 (1.3 to 3.0)1.7 (1.1 to 2.5)1.1 (0.7 to 1.7)
  • Data are n (%) or median (IQR).

  • *HRs were estimated from Cox proportional hazards models with years since sarcoidosis diagnosis as the time scale. The multivariable model 1 included age (continuous), sex, region of residence (six healthcare regions), country of birth (Nordic/non-Nordic) and education. The multivariable model 2 included the covariates age, sex, region of residence, country of birth, education and all comorbidities in the table except pulmonary hypertension due to small numbers.

  • †Effect per 10-year increase.

  • ‡Category ‘≤9 years’ includes <1% missing.