Table 3

Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses of all-cause, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality, stratified by status of receiving aortic valve replacement, and secondary outcome of aortic valve replacement



Unadjusted*Multivariable-adjusted model†
HR (95% CI)‡P valueHR (95% CI)P value
All-cause mortality
 Vitamin D only1.20 (0.91 to 1.58)0.18
 Calcium±vitamin D1.67 (1.39 to 2.00)<0.0011.31 (1.07 to 1.62)0.009
No aortic valve replacement
 Vitamin D only1.20 (0.88 to 1.64)0.22
 Calcium±vitamin D1.75 (1.43 to 2.15)<0.0011.38 (1.08 to 1.76)0.009
Aortic valve replacement
 Vitamin D only1.66 (0.88 to 3.13)0.41
 Calcium±vitamin D1.38 (0.64 to 3.00)0.11
Cardiovascular mortality
 Vitamin D only1.65 (0.97 to 2.78)0.06
 Calcium±vitamin D2.45 (1.71 to 3.51)<0.0012.00 (1.31 to 3.07)0.001
No aortic valve replacement
 Vitamin D only1.72 (0.97 to 3.05)0.06
 Calcium±vitamin D2.58 (1.74 to 3.82)<0.0012.05 (1.27 to 3.29)0.003
Aortic valve replacement
 Vitamin D only1.96 (0.36 to 10.9)0.42
 Calcium±vitamin D2.90 (0.68 to 12.2)0.14
Non-cardiovascular mortality
 Vitamin D only1.30 (0.78 to 2.15)0.30
 Calcium±vitamin D1.72 (1.22 to 2.41)0.0021.43 (0.96 to 2.13)0.07
Aortic valve replacement
 Vitamin D only1.22 (0.98 to 1.53)0.071.13 (0.87 to 1.48)0.33
 Calcium±vitamin D1.51 (1.30 to 1.76)<0.0011.49 (1.24 to 1.78)<0.001
  • *Relative to the control group of no supplementation.

  • †Adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, comorbidities (osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, dialysis, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation), medications (aspirin, statin, warfarin), baseline echocardiography data (left ventricular ejection fraction, aortic valve area) and serum levels of metabolites (creatinine, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein).

  • ‡100-fold bootstrapping was used to calculate the HRs.