Table 2

Incidence and event rates of study outcomes according to study groups



Incidence of outcome (%)*Person-years (PY)Event rate
(per 1000 PY)
Relative event rateP value†
All-cause mortality
 No supplementation216 (17)8.026.0
 Vitamin D only67 (20)2.032.41.2<0.001
 Calcium±vitamin D257 (25)5.943.01.6<0.001
Cardiovascular mortality
 No supplementation47 (4)8.05.8
 Vitamin D only20 (6)2.09.61.60.06
 Calcium±vitamin D82 (8)5.913.72.4<0.001
Aortic valve replacement
 No supplementation143 (11)8.017.7
 Vitamin D only118 (35)2.057.81.20.07
 Calcium±vitamin D513 (50)5.988.21.5<0.001
  • *Percentages calculated relative to total subjects in each group.

  • †Relative to the control group of no supplementation, calculated using log-rank test.