Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population

Total population
(n=2657)
No calcium or vitamin D
(n=1292)
Vitamin D only
(n=332)
Calcium±vitamin D
(n=1033)
P value*
Age74.3±7.574.6±8.074.3±7.873.9±7.30.12
Male1532 (57.5)715 (55.3)248 (74.7)569 (55.0)<0.001
Race
 White2389 (89.8)1175 (90.9)296 (89.2)917 (88.7)
 Black185 (6.9)77 (6.0)23 (6.9)85 (8.2)0.28
 Others86 (3.2)41 (3.2)13 (3.9)32 (3.1)
BMI (kg/m2)28.4±6.428.6±6.228.8±5.928.1±6.20.05
Duration of supplementation, months70 (49–101)67 (45–94)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension2150 (80.8)1036 (80.1)277 (83.4)837 (80.9)0.39
 Diabetes823 (30.9)359 (27.8)122 (36.7)342 (33.1)<0.001
 Hyperlipidaemia2034 (76.47)984 (76.1)269 (81.0)781 (75.5)0.11
 Coronary artery disease1280 (48.1)495 (38.3)211 (63.6)573 (55.4)<0.001
 History of PCI356 (13.3)85 (6.6)68 (20.5)202 (19.5)<0.001
 History of CABG392 (14.74)95 (7.3)78 (23.5)219 (21.2)<0.001
 Congestive heart failure460 (17.2)176 (13.6)71 (21.4)213 (20.6)<0.001
 Atrial fibrillation637 (23.9)255 (19.7)99 (29.8)282 (27.3)<0.001
 Chronic kidney disease346 (13.0)109 (8.4)50 (15.1)187 (18.1)<0.001
 Dialysis dependent42 (1.5)4 (0.3)4 (1.2)34 (3.3)<0.001
 Osteoporosis414 (15.5)200 (15.5)24 (7.2)190 (18.4)<0.001
Medications
 ACE inhibitor1188 (44.7)564 (43.6)158 (47.6)467 (45.2)0.40
 ARB764 (28.7)362 (28.0)99 (29.8)303 (29.3)0.71
 Statins2140 (80.4)988 (76.4)294 (88.6)858 (83.0)<0.001
 Warfarin613 (23.0)243 (18.8)92 (27.7)278 (26.9)<0.001
 Aspirin2140 (78.5)942 (72.9)275 (82.8)871 (84.2)<0.001
 Beta-blocker30 (1.1)14 (1.1)2 (0.6)14 (1.4)0.52
 Calcitonin12 (0.5)6 (0.5)1 (0.3)5 (0.5)0.91
 Phosphate binder162 (6.1)43 (3.3)16 (4.8)103 (10.0)<0.001
 Bisphosphonate309 (11.6)145 (11.2)17 (5.1)147 (14.2)<0.001
Biochemical data†
 Calcium (mg/dL)9.3±0.59.41±0.509.36±0.489.35±0.570.03
 Vitamin D (nmol/L)34.3±13.135.7±13.331.7±12.933.8±12.90.009
 CRP (mg/dL)1.5 (0.6, 4)1.2 (0.5, 3.9)1.3 (0.4, 3.7)1.6 (0.6, 4.6)0.09
 Creatinine (mg/dL)1.1 (0.8, 1.3)1.0 (0.8, 1.2)1.1 (0.9, 1.3)1.0 (0.8, 1.2)<0.001
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)170.1±38.1172.1±36.4164.8±36.9169.3±40.40.005
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)123.5±64.8122.4±65.6129.5±73.6122.8±60.60.19
 HDL (mg/dL)52.4±16.652.9±16.949.6±14.452.9±170.01
 LDL (mg/dL)93.3±34.495.6±33.288.6±33.292.1±360.004
Echocardiography data
 AV area (mm2)1.3±0.21.37±0.261.33±0.251.32±0.25<0.001
 AV mean gradient (mm Hg)16.2±6.516.1±6.616.3±6.716.5±6.50.41
 AV peak gradient (mm Hg)30.2±11.529.8±11.630.3±1130.9±11.60.09
 LV ejection fraction (%)58.0±9.059±9.156.9±9.457.1±8.9<0.001
 LV end diastolic diameter (cm)4.5±0.74.4±0.84.5±0.74.5±0.70.07
 LV end systolic diameter (cm)2.9±0.82.9±0.82.9±0.82.9±0.70.04
  • CRP, creatinine and duration of supplementation are presented as median (IQR), remaining continuous variables as mean±SD and categorical variables as n (%).

  • *P values were calculated using ANOVA for continuous variables, and Kruskal-Wallis tests for duration of supplementation, creatinine and CRP.

  • †Laboratory data were collected prior to the first echocardiogram.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; AV, aortic valve; BMI, body mass index; CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; CRP, C reactive protein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LV, left ventricular; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.