Table 4

Univariate and multivariable linear mixed-effects model to predict progression of aortic valve stenosis according to type of supplementation, stratified by status of receiving aortic valve replacement

Unadjusted*Multivariable-adjusted model†
Beta coefficient
(95% CI)‡
SEP valueBeta coefficient (95% CI)‡SEP value
Aortic valve area Aortic valve replacement
Vitamin D only0.02 (−0.03 to 0.07)0.030.46
Calcium±vitamin D0.02 (−0.02 to 0.07)0.020.26
No aortic valve replacement
Vitamin D only−0.02 (−0.06 to 0.16)0.020.25
Calcium±vitamin D−0.03 (−0.06 to 0.005)0.020.1
Mean pressure gradient Aortic valve replacement
Vitamin D only−0.81 (−3.17 to 1.53)1.20.5
Calcium±vitamin D−2.83 (−4.76 to –0.91)0.980.004−0.7 (−2.63 to 1.2)0.970.47
No aortic valve replacement
Vitamin D only−0.91 (−2.29 to 0.46)0.710.2
Calcium±vitamin D−1.01 (−2.07 to 0.065)0.540.07
Peak pressure gradient Aortic valve replacement
Vitamin D only−1.06 (−3.15 to 1.02)1.850.33
Calcium±vitamin D−4.64 (−7.61 to –1.67)1.510.002−1.37 (−4.4 to 1.7)1.550.38
No aortic valve replacement
Vitamin D only−1.06 (−3.15 to 1.02)0.1060.32
Calcium±vitamin D−1.05 (−2.67 to 0.56)0.820.2
  • *Relative to the control group of no supplementation. Supplementation was defined as >12 months of intake after the baseline echocardiogram and with initiation at least 12 months prior to the last echocardiogram.

  • †Adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities (osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, dialysis, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation), medications (aspirin, statin, warfarin), baseline echocardiography data (left ventricular ejection fraction, aortic valve area) and serum levels of metabolites (creatinine, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein).

  • ‡Linear mixed-effects model with random intercept and interaction effect with time. The beta coefficients reveal the between-subjects analyses (effect of supplementation on echocardiographic parameters).