Table 6

Mediation by HS-SIC on the association of risk factors with incident HF

Mediation by high intensity signal intensity coefficient
Direct effectMediated effect**
(ie, indirect effect)
Total effect
EstimateSEP valueEstimateSEP valueEstimateSEP value
Age0.03590.0048<0.0010.00140.00070.0530.03740.0048<0.001
Sex−0.02060.00860.010−0.00540.00200.010−0.02600.00820.001
Body mass index0.01060.00430.0140.00380.00160.0190.01450.00440.001
Total/HDL cholesterol0.00280.00450.540.00240.00090.0070.00520.00430.24
Systolic blood pressure0.01280.00420.0020.00130.00050.0120.01410.00410.001
Antihypertensive treatment0.04070.0083<0.0010.00360.00150.0170.04420.0083<0.001
Diabetes0.05380.01720.0020.00600.00250.0190.05980.01720.001
Smoking−0.02440.00930.007−0.00120.00100.26−0.02560.00930.005
  • *The mediated effect can be considered the proportion of the total magnitude of association (ie, total effect) attributable to the mediator, in this case HS-SIC. For example, results shown in the table above suggest that HS-SIC is a significant mediator of the association between diabetes and incident HF, whereby 10% (indirect effect/total effect=0.006/0.060=0.10) of the total magnitude of risk observed for diabetes in relation to HF (total effect=0.060) is attributable to an increase in HS-SIC (indirect effect=0.006).

  • HDL, high density lipoprotein; HF, heart failure; HS-SIC, high spectrum signal intensity coefficient.