Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

StudyCohort (country)Study aimEHR descriptionAF cases (n)/total patients (n) (%)Age (mean±SD)Female (%)BMI (mean±SD)Diabetes (%)Hypertension (%)Heart failure (%)Outcome definitionOutcome codingEnrolment period
(mean F/U in years)
Exclusion criteria
Aronson et al 26 MHS
DAmbulatory clinics5660/96 778 (5.80)62.0
13.534.31.00AF, AFIICD codes2005–2015
Past history of AF, incomplete follow-up
Chao et al 27 NHIRD
EVNational health insurance9187/702 502 (1.30)41.3
49.1N/A3.15.20.40AF*ICD codes*2000–2009
Age <18 years, past history of cardiac arrhythmia, rheumatic heart disease
Hill et al 28 CPRD
D, EVNationwide primary care95 607/2994 837 (3.19)56.0
6.925.00.70AF, AFIRead codes2006–2016
Age <30 years, past history of AF
Himmelreich et al 9 Nivel-PCD
EVNationwide primary care5264/111 475 (4.72)65.5
52.5N/A42.766.54.20AF, AFlICPC-1 codes2013–2018
Age <40 years, past history of AF
Hu W-S et al29 NHIRD
DNational health insurance14 212/682 237 (2.08)41.349.3N/A2.115.10.80AFICD codes2000–2013
Age <18 years, past history of AF, incomplete data
Hu W-S and Lin C-L30 NHIRD
EVNational health insurance12 051/692 691 (1.74)41.3
49.4N/AN/A14.40.49AFICD codes1996–2013
Age <18 years, past history of AF, incomplete data
Kim et al35 NHIS-NSC
D, EVNational Health Insurance5824/432 587 (1.35)47.750.523.76.321.22.40AF, AFlICD codes2009–2013
Age <18 years, past history of AF, mitral valve stenosis or prosthetic valve disease, missing data for smoking or alcohol, change in residence
Li et al31 YMID
D, EVRegional medical insurance921/471 446 (0.20)47.047.3N/A4.09.70.15AFICD codes2001–2012
Past history of AF, incomplete data, readmission
EVNational health examination programme12 143/451 199 (2.69)56.1
46.0N/A8.331.71.20AFICD codes2002–2013
Past history of AF, mitral stenosis, prosthetic heart valves, valve replacement or valvuloplasty or cardiomyopathy
Saliba et al 32 ClalitHS
EVState-mandated health services23 223/1062 073 (2.19)65.7
54.7N/A25.348.94.30AFICD codes2012–2014
Age <50 years, past history of AF
Sekelj et al 33 Discover
EVRegional primary care17 880/604 135 (2.96)52.2
±6.1, AFlRead codes2006–2013
Age <30 years, past history of AF, incomplete data for height, weight, BMI, systolic BP and diastolic BP
Suenari et al 34 NHIRD
EVNational health insurance9174/670 804 (1.40)42.4
49.1N/A3.25.50.40AFICD codes2000–2011
Age <20 years, past history of cardiac arrhythmia
  • *In Chao it is not reported how outcome was defined or measured but given the authors were using the same database as Suenari, we have assumed outcomes were measured in the same way.

  • †In Kim, Li and Hu W-S the percentage of patients related to sex, diabetes, hypertension, heart failure was calculated from reported values categorised by incident AF or not.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; AFl, atrial flutter; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; ClalitHS, Clalit Health Services; CN, China; CPRD, Clinical Practice Research Datalink; D, derivation; EHR, electronic health records; EV, external validation; F/U, follow-up; ICD, International Classification of Diseases; ICPC-1, International classification of Primary care version 1 diagnostic codes; IL, Israel; KR, Republic of Korea; MHS, Maccabi Healthcare Services; N/A, not available; NHIRD, National Health Insurance Research Database; NHIS-HEALS, National Health Insurance Service - Health screening Cohort; NHIS-NSC, National Health Insurance Service-based National Sample Cohort; Nivel-PCD, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research Primary Care Database; NL, Netherlands; TW, Taiwan; YMID, Yunnan Medical Insurance Database.