Table 1

Baseline characteristics

Healthy (n=33)AMI (n=52)MR (n=43)AS (n=40)P value
Mean age (years)62±962±762±974±7<0.0001
Female, n (%)17 (52)7 (13)8 (19)10 (24)0.0007
Body surface area (m2)1.94±0.182.05±0.241.99±0.191.92±0.200.01
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Hypertension0 (0)28 (54)15 (35)28 (70)0.02
 IHD0 (0)52 (100)6 (14)3 (8)<0.0001
 Diabetes0 (0)5 (10)0 (0)5 (13)0.004
 AFIB0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)NA
Pulmonary function and biochemistry
 eGFR (mL/min)78 (67–84)87 (74–111)83 (73–90)77 (65–85)0.001
 FEV1 (litre)3.2±0.73.0±0.73.2±0.83.0±0.60.14
 FVC (litre)4.3±1.03.9±0.84.2±1.03.9±0.70.22
Echocardiography
 LVEF (%)65±659±570±766±7<0.0001
 LVEDD (mm)47±752±753±646±4<0.0001
 ERO (cm2)NANA0.5±0.3NANA
 LVOT diameter (cm)2.0±0.22.0±0.22.2±0.22.0±0.1<0.0001
 Mean aortic gradient (mm Hg)NANANA45±13NA
 Peak aortic velocity (m/s)NANANA4.2±0.5NA
Medication, n (%)
 ACE-I/ARB0 (0)19 (37)12 (28)19 (48)0.18
 β-blockers0 (0)45 (87)6 (14)8 (20)<0.0001
 CCB0 (0)11 (21)6 (14)15 (38)0.04
 Diuretics0 (0)5 (10)8 (19)10 (25)0.14
  • Analysis of variance was used to assess between-group differences, and Tukey’s honestly significant difference test was used to determine group means differed for normally distributed data. Wilcoxon rank sum test with Bonferroni correction was used to assess between-group differences and which group means differed for non-normally distributed data. Pearson χ2 test was used to assess between group differences in case of non-parametric data.

  • ACE-I, ACE inhibitor; AFIB, atrial fibrillation or flutter; AMI, acute myocardial infarction; ARB, angiotensin II receptor antagonist; AS, aortic stenosis; CCB, calcium channel blocker; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; ERO, effective regurgitant orifice; FEV1, first second of forced expiration; FVC, forced vital capacity; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; LVEDD, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVOT, Left ventricular outflow tract; MR, mitral regurgitation; NA, not applicable.