Table 1

Descriptive statistics on entire dataset according to outcome status (n=7098)

DemographicsDischarged alive (n=5172)Died in hospital (n=1926)P value
Gender, n (%)*
 Male2974 (57.5)1250 (64.9)<0.0001
Race
 Asian416 (8.0)181 (9.4)<0.0001
 Black1203 (23.3)367 (19.1)
 White1768 (34.2)818 (42.5)
 Other/multi1531 (29.6)487 (25.3)
 Unknown254 (4.9)73 (3.8)
Ethnicity
 Hispanic/Latino1234 (23.9)389 (20.2)0.0002
 Not Hispanic/not Latino3567 (69.0)1424 (73.9)
 Unknown371 (7.2)113 (5.9)
Age
 18– <45 years712 (13.8)61 (3.2)<0.0001
 45– <55 years848 (16.4)147 (7.6)
 55– <65 years1348 (26.1)350 (18.2)
 65– <75 years1153 (22.3)528 (27.4)
 75– <85 years743 (14.4)492 (25.5)
 85 years and older368 (7.1)348 (18.1)
Body mass index
 Underweight/normal weight968 (18.7)417 (21.7)<0.0001
 Overweight1515 (29.3)531 (27.6)
 Obese, class I907 (17.5)295 (15.3)
 Obese, class II439 (8.5)133 (6.9)
 Obese, class III339 (6.6)98 (5.1)
 Unknown1004 (19.4)452 (23.5)
Insurance
 Commercial1738 (33.6)390 (20.2)<0.0001
 Medicaid1240 (24.0)274 (14.2)
 Medicare2036 (39.4)1216 (63.1)
 Other158 (3.1)46 (2.4)
Vital signs
 MBP <65110 (2.1)78 (4.0)<0.0001
 SpO2 <921495 (28.9)866 (45.0)<0.0001
Medical history
 HTN3068 (59.3)1380 (71.7)<0.0001
 CAD1607 (31.1)839 (43.6)<0.0001
 PVD122 (2.4)84 (4.4)<0.0001
 COPD270 (5.2)197 (10.2)<0.0001
 Asthma492 (9.5)164 (8.5)0.200
 ESRD261 (5.0)161 (8.4)<0.0001
 CKD320 (6.2)235 (12.2)<0.0001
 Diabetes1965 (38.0)887 (46.1)<0.0001
 CHF320 (6.2)302 (15.7)<0.0001
Laboratory values
Magnesium
 Normal 1.6–2.6 mg/dL3588 (69.4)1278 (66.4)<0.0001
 Abnormal <1.6 or>2.6 mg/dL306 (5.9)309 (16.0)
 Not performed1278 (24.7)339 (17.6)
AST
 Normal 10–40 U/L2251 (43.5)587 (30.5)<0.0001
 Abnormal >40 U/L2921 (56.5)1339 (69.5)
Glucose
 Normal 70–99 mg/dL740 (14.3)190 (9.9)<0.0001
 Abnormal <70 or >99 mg/dL4432 (85.7)1736 (90.1)
Sodium
 Normal 135–145 mmol/L3120 (60.3)1020 (53.0)<0.0001
 Abnormal, low <135 mmol/L1896 (36.7)664 (34.5)
 Abnormal, high >145 mmol/L156 (3.0)242 (12.6)
Potassium
 Normal 3.5–5.3 mmol/L4260 (82.4)1542 (80.1)<0.0001
 Abnormal, low <3.5 mmol/L671 (13.0)166 (8.6)
 Abnormal, high >5.3 mmol/L241 (4.7)218 (11.3)
BUN
 Normal 5–23 mmol/L3826 (74.0)778 (40.4)<0.0001
 Abnormal >23 mmol/L1346 (26.0)1148 (59.6)
Creatinine
 Normal 0.50–1.30 mg/dL3890 (75.2)931 (48.3)<0.0001
 Abnormal >1.30 mg/dL1282 (24.8)995 (51.7)
Lactate
 Normal 0.5–2.0 mmol/L446 (8.6)60 (3.1)<0.0001
 Abnormal >2.0 mmol/L3167 (61.2)1382 (71.8)
 Not performed1559 (30.1)484 (25.1)
ECG parameters
 PR interval (ms), mean±SD153.3±25.6156.2±31.70.067
 QRS duration (ms), mean±SD90.6±18.294.6±23.0<0.0001
 Ventricular rate (bpm), mean±SD89.8±17.092.4±19.2<0.0001
 QT (ms), mean±SD370.7±41.9373.6±49.10.022
 QTc (ms), mean±SD446.9±30.9455.3±35.6<0.0001
 RBBB464 (9.0)223 (11.6)0.001
 LBBB66 (1.3)49 (2.5)0.0002
 Atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter13 (0.3)14 (0.7)0.0038
 Bradycardia (<60 bpm)116 (2.2)43 (2.2)0.9793
 Tachycardia (>100 bpm)1293 (25.0)610 (31.7)<0.0001
 Q wave, count†2 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 ST elevation20 (0.4)9 (0.5)0.64
 Left ventricular hypertrophy672 (13.0)285 (14.8)0.048
  • *Unless otherwise specified, descriptive statistics are reported as frequency and corresponding column percentage.

  • †Formal comparison between groups not performed.

  • AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; CAD, coronary artery disease; CHF, chronic heart failure; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ESRD, end-stage renal disease on dialysis; HTN, hypertension; LBBB, left bundle branch block; MBP, mean blood pressure; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; QTc, QT corrected for heart rate; RBBB, right bundle branch block; SpO2, oxygen saturation.