Table 1

Common symptoms and signs of heart failure

SymptomsSigns
  • Shortness of breath/dyspnoea

  • Reduced exercise tolerance

  • Fatigue

  • Ankle swelling

  • Orthopnoea

  • Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea

  • Elevated jugular venous pressure

  • Third heart sound (gallop rhythm)

  • Laterally displaced apical impulse

  • Pulmonary crepitations

  • Peripheral oedema