Table 1

How imaging in the UK differs from other countries

DomainUK imagingEU and the Americas
ReimbursementPrimarily state-funded (NHS)Primarily insurance or direct to patient
WorkforceFewer imaging cardiologists and specialist radiologistsMore imaging cardiologist and specialist radiologists
CredentialingOptional accreditationBoard certification
Protocols and guidelinesNationally government-derived NICE guidelinesEuropean Society or American College clinical guidelines
 CMRHighly developed integration into clinical carePatchy integration into clinical care
EchocardiographyPhysiologist/Clinical scientist primary reporterPhysician/Cardiologist primary reporter
 Cardiac CTNationally mandated NICE CG95 for new-onset chest painClinical guideline-based pathways to a variety of imaging techniques
Nuclear cardiologyLow level of cardiology involvement/predominantly radiology drivenGreater cardiology involvement
  • CMR, cardiovascular magnetic resonance; EU, European Union; NHS, National Health Service; NICE, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.