Table 3

Associations of COVID-19 case-control status with incident events

All case-control sets
n=17 871*
Cases with no hospital admission record n=14 304Cases hospitalised with primary COVID-19 diagnosis n=2701Cases hospitalised with secondary COVID-19 diagnosis n=866
Incident diseases HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
 MI1.82 (1.12 to 2.96)
P=0.015
0.19 (0.06 to 0.65)
P=0.008
9.9 (3.36 to 29.1)
P<0.0001
22.2 (2.84 to 173)
P=0.003
 Stroke4.15 (2.54 to 6.78)
P<0.0001
1.77 (0.86 to 3.63)
P=0.12
17.5 (5.26 to 57.9)
P<0.0001
4.54 (1.55 to 13.33)
P=0.006
 Heart failure5.6 (4.05 to 7.87)
P<0.0001
0.85 (0.45 to 1.61)
P=0.63
21.6 (10.9 to 42.9)
P<0.0001
13.1 (5.06 to 33.8)
P<0.0001
 AF5.25 (3.98 to 6.93)
P<0.0001
1.03 (0.63 to 1.69)
P=0.90
14.9 (9.34 to 23.8)
P<0.0001
29.3 (6.94 to 124)
P<0.0001
 VTE13.2 (8.75 to 19.9)
P<0.0001
2.74 (1.38 to 5.45)
P=0.004
27.6 (14.5 to 52.3)
P<0.0001
23.1 (5.42 to 98.4)
P<0.0001
 Pericarditis8.21 (3.38 to 20.00)
P<0.0001
0.68 (0.07 to 6.48)
P=0.74
13.6 (4.06 to 45.8)
P<0.0001

MortalityHR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
 All-cause35.47 (28.24 to 44.55)
P<0.0001
10.23 (7.63 to 13.70)
P<0.0001
118.01 (73.32 to 189.95)P<0.000163.97 (30.14 to 135.77)
P<0.0001
 CVD5.48 (3.24 to 9.29)
P<0.0001
2.02 (0.93 to 4.34)
P=0.073
8.76 (2.51 to 30.5)
P=0.001
14.6 (4.37 to 48.8)
P<0.0001
 IHD4.23 (2.16 to 8.67)
P<0.0001
1.00 (0.34 to 2.93)
P=0.99
14.1 (1.73 to 113.8)
P=0.013
23.7 (3.09 to 182)
P=0.002
  • *Sample sizes indicate the number of cases; the analysis sample also includes two controls per case.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; CVD, cardiovascular disease; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; MI, myocardial infarction; VTE, venous thromboembolism.