Table 1

Characteristics of the included studies

StudyStudy designPopulation sizeAge (years)Gender (male %)Follow-up durationPAHMean PAPArterial hypertensionDiabetes mellitusLA size/LV functionOutcomes of interest
Swan et al 17 Cohort5069±5.8N/A57 (44–71) daysN/AN/A34%6%N/ARVEDD, sPAP, atrial arrhythmias
Elshershari et al 33 Cohort4171 (62–87)41.528±23.7 months23%26 (11–52)4.9%N/AN/ANYHA, RVEDD, atrial arrhythmias, mortality
Jategaonkar et al 18 Cohort9669.9±5.368.833.6±31.2 monthsN/A25.1±7.856.3%N/ALA diameter:
49.3±9.4 mm
NYHA, RVEDD, LVEDD, atrial arrhythmias
Spies and Hijazi32 Cohort5570 (61–87)68.828 (6–79) months42%N/AN/AN/AN/ANYHA, RVEDD, atrial arrhythmias
Taniguchi et al 19 Cohort968.1±7.055.610.6±4.3 months3.4%19.7±4.1N/AN/ALA diameter:
59.8±8.4 mm
Yalonetsky and Lorber34 Cohort2366.8±530.412 monthsN/AN/A82.6%13%N/AsPAP, atrial arrhythmias
Hanninen et al 20 Cohort5469 (60–86)27.83.3 years40.7%25 (12–50)N/A5%8% had LVEF
40%–60%, 92% had LVEF >60%
NYHA, RVEDD, LVEDD, mortality
Humenberger et al 25 Cohort7471± yearsN/AN/A27%6.8%LA pressure:
10 (8–14) mm Hg
Nakagawa et al 26 Cohort3075.8±3.833.419.1±11.3 months53%N/A40%N/AE/e’: 11.0±3.9NYHA, RVEDD, LVEDD, sPAP, BNP, TR, atrial arrhythmias, mortality
Woo et al 21 Cohort2366.7±5.2526.121.6±18.5 months65.2%28.3±8.5N/AN/AN/ANYHA, atrial arrhythmias
Stroker et al 27 Cohort4769±519.13.3 (0–10) yearsN/AN/A70%N/AE/A: 0.9±0.22NYHA, RVEDD, LVEDD, sPAP, TR, atrial arrhythmias, mortality
Komar et al 28 Cohort7565.3±15.74012 months16%N/A38.6%5.3%LVEF: 60.4%RVEDD
Jampates and Hengrussamee22 Cohort5966.0±4.92212 monthsN/A27.7±7.552.5%20.3%LA diameter:
43.0±7.4 mm
LVEF: 66%±12.9%
NYHA, LVEDD, sPAP, mortality
Takaya et al
(60–75 years)29
Cohort12066±44236 (1–104) monthsN/A18±541%17%E/e’: 8.9±2.9
e’: 8.6±2.4
LVEF: 70%±7%
NYHA, RVEDD, LVEDD, BNP, mortality
Takaya et al
(>75 years)29
Cohort5578±34236 (1–104) monthsN/A18±545%18%E/e’: 10.2±3.6
LVEF: 71%±6%
NYHA, RVEDD, LVEDD, BNP, mortality
Thilén and Persson35Cohort14872.2±4.937.54.4±2.6 yearsN/A22±756.1%11.5%LA pressure:
9±4 (1–19) mm Hg
NYHA, atrial arrhythmias, mortality
Chen et al 24 Cohort11165 (61–80)37.86 monthsN/AN/AN/AN/ALA diameter:
42.0±9.2 mm
LA volume:
86.5±53.1 mL
LV volume:
68.8±15.8 mL
LVEF: 64.6%±4.2%
NYHA, LVEDD, sPAP, TR, atrial arrhythmias
Giordano et al 30 Cohort6865.1±3.8284.3±1.5 years41.2%24.6±8.954.4%14.7%LV diastolic dysfunction: mild: 83.1%
Moderate: 10.8%
Severe: 1.5%
NYHA, RVEDD, sPAP, TR, atrial arrhythmias
Sun et al 31 Cohort4664.8±3.73512 monthsN/A40±5.430%22.5%LA diameter:
28.7±4.8 mm
E/A: 1.4±0.3
RVEDD, LVEDD, atrial arrhythmias
  • BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; e’, early diastolic septal mitral annular velocity; E, early diastolic mitral valve flow velocity; E/A, peak of mitral flow spectrum; LA, left atrium; LV, left ventricle; LVEDD, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; N/A, non-applicable; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PAH, pulmonary arterial hypertension; PAP, pulmonary arterial pressure; RVEDD, right ventricular end-diastolic diameter; sPAP, systolic pulmonary arterial hypertension; TR, tricuspid valve regurgitation.