Table 3

Clinical characteristics for athletes with minor cardiovascular diagnoses

CaseAge (years)SexECGTTEAdditional testingFinal diagnosis
120MNormalMild hypokinesis, LVEF 45%CMR: global hypocontractility, LVEF 44%Possible non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy
221FNormalPapillary fibroelastomaPapillary fibroelastoma
321MNormalMildly dilated aortic root, possible BAVMild aortic root dilatation, possible BAV
421MNormalPapillary fibro-elastoma, ASA, possible PFOPapillary fibroelastoma, ASA, possible PFO
518MNormalLVH (IVS 15 mm)LVH, moderate
622MNormalIncreased LVWTIncreased LVWT
1019MNormalBAVPulmonary function testing: normalBAV
1117MNormalDilated aortic root (39 mm, z-score 1.3)CMR: normalMild aortic root dilatation
1220MNormalMild aortic dilatationCMR: normalMild aortic dilatation
1317MNormalBiV enlargement, prominent trabeculations
  • CMR: severe BiV enlargement, prominent trabeculations

  • No sport restrictions, continued follow-up every 6 months

BiV enlargement with prominent trabeculations
1521MNormalDilated ascending aorta (39 mm, z-score 3.2)
  • CMR: normal

  • CTA chest: normal, maximal thoracic aortic diameter 36 mm (z-score 2.9)

Mild ascending aorta dilatation
  • ASA, atrial septal aneurysm; ASD, atrial septal defect; BAV, bicuspid aortic valve; BiV, biventricular; CMR, cardiac magnetic resonance; CTA, CT angiography; F, female; IVS, intraventricular septum; LV, left ventricle; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVWT, left ventricular wall thickness; M, male; MVP, mitral valve prolapse; PFO, patent foramen ovale; TTE, transthoracic echocardiography.