Table 5

Clinical characteristics for athletes with findings of uncertain significance

CaseAge (years)SexECGTTEAdditional testingFinal diagnosis
120FNormalRV trabeculationCMR: normalRV trabeculation
218MNormalTrabeculated apexRepeat TTE: mild BiV enlargement, partial scarring of papillary musclesNormal/Athlete’s heart
319MNormalAbnormal diastolic functionCMR: normalNormal/Athlete’s heart
418MNormalPossible BAVCMR: normalNormal/Athlete’s heart
520MNormalLVEF 48%; moderately reduced RV function, FAC 24.2%
  • CMR: LVEF 48%, RVEF 42%, global hypokinesis

  • Stress VO2: normal

  • Stress echo: mildly reduced BiV function

  • Ziopatch: normal

  • Cardiopulmonary stress test: normal

Normal/Athlete’s heart
620MNormalLVEF 45%–50%CMR: normalNormal/Athlete’s heart
721MNormalLVEF 46%
  • CMR: reduced LVEF

  • Repeat TTE: normal

Normal/Athlete’s heart
821FNormalSeptal WMACMR: normalNormal/Athlete’s heart
919MNormalAbnormal LV mid-septal motion; moderate LA dilation
  • CMR: mild global hypokinesis

  • 24-hour Holter: rare PACs and ventricular ectopic beats

  • Stress echo: normal

Normal/Athlete’s heart
1019MNormalMildly reduced RV systolic functionCMR: normalNormal/Athlete’s heart
1120MNormalLVEF 47%, mildly increased LV size
  • Restricted from sport pending CMR

  • CMR: LVEF 48%, moderately enlarged LV

Non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy versus athlete’s heart
  • BAV, bicuspid aortic valve; BiV, biventricular; CMR, cardiac magnetic resonance; CTA, CT angiography; F, female; FAC, fractional area change; LA, left atrium; LV, left ventricle; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; M, male; PAC, premature atrial contraction; RV, right ventricle; RVEF, right ventricular ejection fraction; TEE, trans-oesophageal echocardiography; TTE, transthoracic echocardiography; WMA, wall motion abnormalities.