Table 4

Clinical characteristics for athletes with incidental cardiovascular diagnoses

CaseAge (years)SexECGTTEAdditional testingFinal diagnosis
119FNormalASAASA
222MNormalCor triatriatumCor triatriatum
322FNormalPFOPFO
418FNormalPossible PFOPossible PFO
519FNormalPossible PFOPossible PFO
621FNormalPossible PFOPossible PFO
720MNormalMild MV calcifications, aortic sclerosis without stenosisMild MV calcifications, aortic sclerosis
820MNormalInferoapical LV trabeculation, mild global hypokinesisPossible limited LVNC, LV trabeculation
920MNormalMild concentric LVH (IVS 13 mm)LVH, mild
1019MNormalPFO versus ASDPFO versus ASD
1118FNormalPFO versus ASDPFO versus ASD
1219FNormalASACMR: moderate-to-severe BiV enlargementASA
1320FNormalASACMR: normalASA
1419MNormalAortic arch outpouchingCTA chest: bovine aortic archBovine aortic arch
1519FNormalPFO, ASAPFO, ASA
1619FNormalPFOPFO
1721MNormalPFOPFO
1822MNormalPFOPFO
1921FNormalTricuspid vegetation versus artefactTEE recommended, not doneTricuspid vegetation versus artefact
2019MNormalGLS 14%Normal/Athlete’s heart
2119MNormalGLS 13%Normal/Athlete’s heart
2220MNormalMildly reduced GLSNormal/Athlete’s heart
2319MNormalMildly reduced GLSNormal/Athlete’s heart
2421FNormalGLS 15.7%; minimal basal inferior/inferoseptal WMANormal/Athlete’s heart
2522MNormalSeptal hypokinesisNormal/Athlete’s heart
  • ASA, atrial septal aneurysm; ASD, atrial septal defect; BiV, biventricular; CMR, cardiac magnetic resonance; CTA, CT angiography; F, female; GLS, global longitudinal strain; IVS, intraventricular septum; LV, left ventricle; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVNC, left ventricular non-compaction; M, male; MV, mitral valve; PFO, patent foramen ovale; TEE, trans-oesophageal echocardiography; TTE, transthoracic echocardiography; WMA, wall motion abnormalities.