Table 2

Clinical characteristics for athletes with major cardiovascular diagnoses

CaseAge (years)SexECGTTEAdditional testingFinal diagnosis
121MTWI V3-V6, LVHModerate LVH
  • CMR: apical HCM

  • 48-hour Holter monitor: normal

  • Exercise stress test: normal

223MNormalDilated aortic root (42 mm, z-score 3.0)CMR: normalAortic root dilatation
324MLBBBModerate LV dilation, LVEF 25%–30%, apical and inferoseptal wall dyskinesia
  • CMR: severe LV enlargement, LVEF 28%, thinning of compacted myocardium apically

  • Restricted from sport undergoing genetic cardiomyopathy workup

Dilated cardiomyopathy, possible LVNC
419MNormalDilated aortic root (40 mm, z-score 2.8)Aortic root dilatation
520MAtrial fibrillationNormal
  • CMR: normal

  • Cardioverted in emergency department

Atrial fibrillation
622MNormalDilated aortic root (40 mm, z-score 2.7)Aortic root dilatation
  • CMR, cardiac magnetic resonance; F, female; HCM, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; LBBB, left bundle branch block; LV, left ventricle; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; LVNC, left ventricular non-compaction; M, male; TTE, transthoracic echocardiography; TWI, T wave inversions.