Table 1

Baseline characteristics of patients included in the cohort, Alberta, Canada

All patients,
N=1 42 787
Mean (SD) age in years at cohort entry68.1 (12.3)
Male sex, n (%)73 777 (51.7)
Residence, n (%)
 Urban (Calgary, Edmonton)88 115 (61.7)
 Rural (Central, North, South)54 672 (38.3)
Neighbourhood income quintile, n (%)
 First (highest)17 627 (12.3)
 Second24 252 (17.0)
 Third20 400 (14.3)
 Fourth38 131 (26.7)
 Fifth (lowest)42 377 (29.7)
Newly diagnosed patients, n (%)52 917 (37.1)
Number of exacerbation in the past 12 months pre-cohort entry, n (%)
 0116 850 (81.8)
 120 747 (14.5)
 2+5190 (3.6)
Cardiovascular risk factors n (%)*
 Diabetes mellitus type 227 527 (19.3)
 Dyslipidaemia†31 346 (22.0)
 Hypertensive diseases66 462 (46.5)
Comorbidities, n (%)*
 Ischaemic heart diseases36 386 (25.5)
 Heart failure18 649 (13.1)
 Cardiomyopathy4152 (2.9)
 Pulmonary oedema1654 (1.2)
 Pulmonary hypertension3505 (2.5)
 Venous thromboembolism14 741 (10.3)
 Atrial fibrillation and other arrhythmias22 126 (15.5)
 Cerebrovascular disease13 276 (9.3)
 Current (adult) asthma6093 (4.3)
 Chronic kidney disease, renal failure15 184 (10.6)
 Severe mental illness‡8908 (6.2)
 Anxiety disorder23 163 (16.2)
Mean (SD) number of general practitioner visits, past 12 months pre-cohort entry12.4 (15.5)
Medication dispenses, past 12 months pre-cohort entry, n (%)§
 Cardiac medication87 153 (61.0)
 Metabolic medication62 193 (43.6)
 Long-acting inhaled COPD drug as a single therapy or combination therapy67 262 (47.1)
 Long-acting inhaled COPD drug as single therapy44 834 (31.4)
 Long-acting inhaled COPD drug as combination therapy47 673 (33.4)
 Short-acting inhaler52 867 (37.0)
 Roflumilast and/or theophylline1241 (0.9)
  • *Comorbidities were based on all available lookback data except for current (adult) asthma and anxiety disorder, which were based on 24 month lookback data.

  • †Dyslipidaemia included hyperlipidaemia, hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidaemia.

  • ‡Severe mental illness included recurrent and persistent depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia.

  • §Medication dispense was defined as at least one dispensation during the 12 months pre-index.

  • ¶Codes used to identify the medications of interest are in online supplemental table S3.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CV, cardiovascular; n, sample size.