Table 1

Characteristics of weighted populations in CPRD Aurum database, stratified by staggered cohort and exposure status. Exposure is any COVID-19 vaccine

CharacteristicsCohort 1Cohort 2Cohort 3Cohort 4
UnvaccinatedVaccinatedASMDUnvaccinatedVaccinatedASMDUnvaccinatedVaccinatedASMDUnvaccinatedVaccinatedASMD
No (individuals) 154 864154 245420 707420 931463 495462 463818 917827 124
Age, median (Q25–Q75) 80 (76–84)80 (76–84)0.00058 (44–67)58 (44–67)0.00550 (41–58)52 (40–58)0.00334 (26–42)34 (26–42)0.004
Sex: female, N (%) 88 349 (57%)87 639 (57%)0.005248 156 (59%)249 561 (59%)0.006245 248 (53%)245 600 (53%)0.004351 435 (43%)358 688 (43%)0.009
Years of prior history*, median (Q25–Q75) 24 (10–35)24 (10–36)0.00618 (8–29)18 (8–29)0.00314 (6–24)14 (7–24)0.0088 (4–17)7 (3–18)0.001
Number of GP visits, median (Q25–Q75) 10 (5–18)10 (6–17)8 (3–15)8 (5–14)4 (1–11)6(3-11)2 (0–6)2 (0–6)
Number of PCR tests, median (Q25–Q75) 0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)
Comorbidities†, N (%)
 Anxiety23 200 (15%)22 789 (15%)0.00694 390 (22%)91 644 (22%)0.01692 820 (20%)90 807 (20%)0.010123 055 (15%)125 202 (15%)0.003
 Asthma16 978 (11%)16 663 (11%)0.00595 770 (23%)94 550 (22%)0.00779 642 (17%)78 266 (17%)0.00763 687 (8%)61 472 (7%)0.013
 Chronic kidney disease36 149 (23%)36 046 (23%)0.00128 181 (7%)29 756 (7%)0.01510 283 (2%)10 577 (2%)0.0053840 (0%)3572 (0%)0.006
 COPD13 385 (9%)13 181 (9%)0.00317 447 (4%)17 999 (4%)0.0066062 (1%)5754 (1%)0.0061901 (0%)1918 (0%)0.000
 Dementia9483 (6%)8517 (6%)0.0264182 (1%)3879 (1%)0.0071361 (0%)1392 (0%)0.001276 (0%)495 (0%)0.012
 Depressive disorder18 632 (12%)18 547 (12%)0.00085 280 (20%)81 945 (19%)0.02081 891 (18%)79 804 (17%)0.01194 373 (12%)97 053 (12%)0.007
 Diabetes29 365 (19%)28 831 (19%)0.00749 408 (12%)48 562 (12%)0.00626 616 (6%)28 628 (6%)0.01912 787 (2%)12 539 (2%)0.004
 GORD8718 (6%)8515 (6%)0.00519 907 (5%)18 924 (4%)0.01115 646 (3%)14 982 (3%)0.00813 882 (2%)13 893 (2%)0.001
 Heart failure9349 (6%)8851 (6%)0.0137284 (2%)6502 (2%)0.0152660 (1%)2470 (1%)0.005930 (0%)816 (0%)0.005
 Hypertension81 563 (53%)80 806 (52%)0.00697 707 (23%)98 193 (23%)0.00254 649 (12%)55 798 (12%)0.00822 925 (3%)24 450 (3%)0.009
 Hypothyroidism15 125 (10%)15 098 (10%)0.00125 579 (6%)25 962 (6%)0.00417 162 (4%)17 580 (4%)0.00512 427 (2%)12 641 (2%)0.001
 Malignant neoplastic disease33 467 (22%)33 024 (21%)0.00530 194 (7%)35 085 (8%)0.04314 815 (3%)14 140 (3%)0.0086447 (1%)5766 (1%)0.011
 Myocardial infarction7824 (5%)7731 (5%)0.0029964 (2%)11 319 (3%)0.0203787 (1%)3664 (1%)0.0031315 (0%)1069 (0%)0.008
 Osteoporosis15 275 (10%)15 373 (10%)0.00310 626 (3%)10 718 (3%)0.0014113 (1%)4131 (1%)0.0011376 (0%)1472 (0%)0.002
 Pneumonia8573 (6%)7621 (5%)0.02711 355 (3%)10 691 (3%)0.0106651 (1%)6545 (1%)0.0025144 (1%)5151 (1%)0.001
 Rheumatoid arthritis3066 (2%)3092 (2%)0.0026198 (1%)6570 (2%)0.0072355 (1%)3111 (1%)0.0211201 (0%)859 (0%)0.012
 Stroke7667 (5%)7047 (5%)0.0188041 (2%)8794 (2%)0.0133518 (1%)3293 (1%)0.0061496 (0%)1305 (0%)0.006
 Venous thromboembolism9589 (6%)9241 (6%)0.00811 836 (3%)12 475 (3%)0.0096503 (1%)8075 (2%)0.0284661 (1%)2441 (0%)0.042
  • The four cohorts represent vaccine rollout periods.

  • *Calculated as the days of previous observation in the database before index date.

  • †Assessed any time before index date.

  • ASMD, absolute standardised mean difference; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GORD, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; GP, general practitioner; PCR, polymerase chain reaction.