Table 3

Multivariable linear regression models for ambulatory heart rate measures

N=5021Mean heart rate, beats/min (95% CI)Minimum heart rate, beats/min (95% CI)Average daytime heart rate, beats/min (95% CI)Average night-time heart rate, beats/min (95% CI)
Beta (95% CI)t ratio*Beta (95% CI)t ratio*Beta (95% CI)t ratio*Beta (95% CI)t ratio*
Age (per 1 year)−0.0
(−0.1, 0.0)
−1.40.1
(0.0, 0.1)
3.3−0.0
(−0.1, 0.0)
−1.4−0.0
(−0.1, 0.0)
−0.6
Men (vs women) −2.8
(−3.5, −2.0)
−7.3 −2.2
(−2.9, −1.6)
−7.1 −3.2
(−4.0, −2.4)
−7.7 −2.0
(−2.8, −1.3)
−5.2
Height (per 10 cm) −0.8
(−1.2, −0.5)
−4.9 −0.8
(−1.0, −0.5)
−5.2 −0.8
(−1.2, −0.5)
−4.4 −0.9
(−1.2, −0.6)
−5.1
Body mass index, kg/m2
 <25RefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
 25–30 0.9
(0.4, 1.4)
3.5 0.8
(0.4, 1.3)
3.8 0.6
(0.1, 1.2)
2.3 1.4
(0.9, 2.0)
5.4
 >30 1.9
(1.2, 2.6)
5.6 1.4
(0.9, 2.0)
5.1 1.4
(0.7, 2.1)
3.9 2.9
(2.3, 3.6)
8.5
Smoking
 NeverRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
 Former 1.2
(0.7, 1.7)
4.9 0.9
(0.5, 1.3)
4.3 1.1
(0.6, 1.7)
4.2 1.3
(0.8, 1.9)
5.2
 Current 2.7
(1.9, 3.4)
6.7 2.2
(1.6, 2.9)
6.8 2.2
(1.3, 3.0)
5.0 3.7
(2.9, 4.5)
9.2
High physical activity (vs low) −3.6
(−4.1, −3.1)
−15.1 −2.7
(−3.1, −2.3)
−13.5 −3.7
(−4.2, −3.2)
−14.4 −3.3
(−3.8, −2.9)
−13.7
Alcohol intake, above median (vs below median) 0.7
(0.2, 1.1)
3.0 0.8
(0.4, 1.2)
4.10.5
(0.0, 1.0)
2.1 1.0
(0.6, 1.5)
4.3
Diabetes (yes vs no) 2.0
(1.1, 2.8)
4.5 2.1
(1.4, 2.8)
5.8 1.7
(0.8, 2.6)
3.6 2.5
(1.6, 3.4)
5.5
Hypertension (yes vs no)0.4
(−0.1, 1.0)
1.50.1
(−0.4, 0.6)
0.40.5
(−0.1, 1.2)
1.60.3
(−0.3, 0.9)
0.8
Using oral beta-blockers (yes vs no) −4.5
(−5.5, −3.4)
−8.5 −0.9
(−1.8, −0.1)
−2.2 −5.7
(−6.8, −4.5)
−9.9 −1.8
(−2.8, −0.7)
−3.3
FEV1%predicted, per 10% increase −0.3
(−0.4, −0.1)
−3.6 −0.3
(−0.5, −0.2)
−4.8−0.2
(−0.4, 0.0)
−2.4 −0.4
(−0.6, −0.3)
−5.3
Coronary artery calcium score
 0RefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
 1–990.4
(−0.1, 1.0)
1.60.4
(−0.1, 0.8)
1.60.4
(−0.2, 1.0)
1.30.5
(0.0, 1.1)
1.8
≥1000.6
(−0.2, 1.4)
1.50.5
(−0.1, 1.2)
1.60.5
(−0.4, 1.3)
1.10.8
(0.0, 1.6)
2.0
eGFR (per 10 mL/min/1.73 m2) 0.6
(0.4, 0.8)
6.1 0.4
(0.3, 0.6)
5.0 0.7
(0.5, 0.9)
6.2 0.5
(0.3, 0.7)
5.1
Haemoglobin (per 10 g/L increase) 0.7
(0.5, 1.0)
5.7 0.3
(0.1, 0.5)
2.5 0.8
(0.6, 1.1)
6.1 0.4
(0.2, 0.7)
3.5
Constant†76.1
(75.4, 76.8)
49.9
(49.3, 50.5)
81.5
(80.7, 82.3)
64.4
(63.7, 65.2)
Unadjusted R2 0.1490.1430.1330.151
Adjusted R2 0.1460.1400.1300.148
  • Bold numbers indicate statistical significance (p<0.05).

  • *Larger t ratios (both positive and negative) imply larger impacts on heart rate.

  • †The constant is what is expected for an individual with values that have been set as reference as stated in the table and age 50 years old, the mean of the continuous variables height (172 cm), eGFR (89 mL/min/1.73 m2), haemoglobin (142 g/L) and FEV1%predicted (109%).

  • eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FEV1%predicted, per cent of predicted forced expiratory volume during 1 s.