Table 2

Baseline characteristics

CharacteristicsAllTertiles of HGFp Value
123
n=351n=117n=117n=117
HGF, ng/ml (range)0–17.190–1.891.91–3.593.6–17.19
Age, years75 (63–82)r=0.120.028
Male gender, n (%)232 (66)74 (63)80 (68)78 (67)0.61
Ischaemic HF, n (%)221 (63)76 (65)80 (69)65 (56)0.15
BNP, pg/ml441 (231–842)r=0.140.009
LVEF, %30 (22–35)r=−0.080.57
NYHA class IV,* n (%)146 (42)49 (42)56 (48)41 (35)0.28
eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m251 (36–67)r=−0.080.12
Body mass index, kg/m226.1 (23.7–29.4)r=−0.120.028
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)140 (40)52 (44)49 (42)39 (33)0.10
Hypertension, n (%)242 (69)83 (71)82 (70)77 (66)0.43
Systolic BP, mm Hg120 (110–130)r=0.010.90
Heart rate, bpm74 (66–85)r=0.040.47
Atrial fibrillation, n (%)107 (30)28 (24)35 (30)44 (38)0.028
RAAS inhibitor, n (%)307 (87)110 (94)101 (86)96 (82)0.017
 Equivalent dose, %40 (25–75)r=−0.21<0.001
ACE inhibitor, n (%)246 (70)94 (80)76 (65)76 (65)0.013
 Equivalent dose, %36 (25–63)r=−0.25<0.001
β Blocker, n (%)259 (74)88 (75)87 (74)84 (72)0.74
 Equivalent dose, %25 (13–50)r=0.030.62
  • Continuous data are presented as median (IQR) and their association with tertiles of HGF was assessed using Spearman rho correlation coefficient. Categorical data are analysed using a test for linear association (Mantel–Haenszel χ2 test).

  • * The remaining patients were NYHA class III.

  • Equivalent dose (in %) refers to the recommended maximum dose (100%) of RAAS inhibitors, ACE inhibitors or β blockers.

  • BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; BP, blood pressure; bpm, beats per minute; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HF, heart failure; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction (available for 158 patients); NYHA, New York Heart Association; RAAS, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system.