Table 1

Characteristics of the study and control groups

VariableHealthy controls (n = 20)CHF patients (n = 36)p Value 1-150
Age (years)55.2 (2.7)59.1 (2.0)NS
Body mass index (kg/m2)28.2 (1.1)25.6 (0.7)NS
Total body fat (kg)22.3 (1.8)18.7 (1.2)NS
LV ejection fraction (%)ND25.6 (2.3)
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)126.0 (3.1)111.8 (2.8)0.002
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)79.4 (2.4)70.0 (1.6)0.001
NYHA class (n)
 I4
 II11
 III18
 IV3
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.4 (0.1)5.7 (0.3)NS
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)53.3 (−7.7, +9.0)56.6 (−6.6, +7.5)NS
Incremental glucose area (mmol/l.min)631.5 (127.1)539.3 (35.1)NS
Incremental insulin area (104.[pmol/l].min)1-150 2.52 (−0.25, +0.27)2.02 (−0.27, +0.29)NS
Insulin sensitivity (105/min/[pmol/l]) 3.33 (−0.61, +0.67)2.02 (−0.27, +0.29)0.035
Anaerobic threshold (ml/kg/min)16.8 (1.0)11.8 (0.7)< 0.001
  • Values are mean (SEM) unless otherwise stated.

  • 1-150 Differences between groups from analysis of variance; log transformed for statistical analysis; square root transformed for statistical analysis.

  • CHF, chronic heart failure; LV, left ventricular; ND, not done; NYHA, New York Heart Association.