Table 1

Interventions used in experimental animal models to reduce no-reflow

InterventionSpeciesMethods for assessing no-reflowComment
EM, electron microscopy; LM, light microscopy; MCE, myocardial contrast echocardiography.
Adenosine, intracoronary and intravenous application during reperfusionDogsRadioactive microspheres, EMImproved regional myocardial blood flow, ultrastructural preservation of endothelial cells, less neutrophil infiltration, in one study only effective in combination with lidocaine
Calcium channel antagonists
Nisoldipine before ischaemiaRatsFluorescein perfusionReduced area of no-reflow with nisoldipine in globally ischaemic isolated hearts
Gallopamil during ischaemiaRabbitsThioflavin SReduced no reflow with gallopamil during ischaemia, accompanied by infarct size reduction
Neutrophil depletion
Reperfusion with neutrophil depleted blood (filter)DogsThioflavin SReduction of anatomical no reflow with concomitant infarct size reduction
Intraperitoneal mustin hydrochlorideRatsConstant pressure perfusion (Langendorff)Explanted hearts after global ischaemia for 4 hours (4°C) were transplanted into the abdomen of the recipient. After different times of in situ reperfusion, Langendorff perfusion revealed better recovery of coronary flow after leucocyte depletion
Reperfusion with intracoronary oxygenated perfluorochemicalDogsThioflavin S, coloured microspheres, EM, LMReduced area of no-reflow, less leucocyte plugging, preservation of endothelial structure
Oxygen derived free radical scavenging
Superoxide dismutase and catalase during reperfusionDogsRadioactive microspheres, EMPreservation of endocardial regional blood flow, less ultrastructural damage to the endothelium within myocardial necrosis, pronounced hyperaemic response in treated animals after 10 minutes of reperfusion
Active site blocked factor VIIa
Active site blocked factor VIIa during reperfusionRabbitsThioflavin SReduction of anatomical no-reflow and infarct size
Endothelin antagonism
Endothelin A antagonist during reperfusionDogsMCE, radioactive microspheresEnhanced microvascular flow after 180 minutes of reperfusion by contrast echocardiography and microspheres