Table 2

Potential inhibitors and signalling pathways of cardiomyocyte apoptosis

StimulusSignalling pathwayPotential inhibitor
ERK, extracellular signal related kinase; IAP, inhibitor of apoptosis protein; SAPK, stress activated protein kinase.
Ischaemia/reperfusionERK/SAPKActivation of ERK, inhibition of SAPK signalling
Pressure overloadERK/SAPK
Neurohormonal factors (e.g. catecholamines)G protein couplingβ Blockers
IschaemiaLack of growth factor signallingActivation of Akt/ERK pathways (for example, by IGF-1)
Death receptor ligandsAdapter molecules/caspasesDecoy receptors/receptor antagonists IAPs/caspase inhibitors